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Women

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CONTENTSWOMEN WHO CHANGED THE WORLD

04 Elizabeth IStep inside the turbulent reign of the Tudor queen

16 BoudicaHow an Ancient British tribal leader took on the Romans

24 Ada LovelaceDiscover the world’s first computer programmer

28 Queen VictoriaBrittania ruled the waves under this great monarch

37 Dian Fossey5 things you never knew about the conservation heroine

38 CleopatraThe truth behind Egypt’s most famous female pharaoh

46 Joan of Arc19 myths busted about the Medieval warrior

54 Emmeline PankhurstThe life of the Suffragette and political activist exposed

58 Anne BoleynHow one woman changed the face of England forever

66 Amelia EarhartInside her flying career and mysterious disappearance

Be part of history /AllAboutHistory @AboutHistoryMagwww.historyanswers.co.uk

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They say history is written by the winners, but for the most part it has also been written by men. Since the dawn of time, the ‘stronger sex’ has dominated society, but every now and again a woman has broken free of the shackles to prove themselves every bit as capable of changing the world.

CONTENTSAlicea Francis Editor

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Elizabeth assumed the throne after the death of her Catholic sister Mary, upon

which she faced an unstable nation torn

apart by religious conflict. Over the course of her reign she fought enemies at home and abroad, uniting England under one church and oversaw the exploration of new lands.

British, 1533 – 1603ELIZABETH I

Brief Bio

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In 1588, against the advice of her most trusted aides, Elizabeth I rode out on her grey gelding to address her troops gathered at Tilbury in Essex in preparation of repelling the expected

invasion force of the Spanish Armada. Looking out at the assembled faces before her, she delivered a speech that would go down in history and for many would forever define her: “I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king – and of a king of England too.”

The speech would have to be transcribed and redistributed for the soldiers who were unable to hear the Queen but they had all seen their monarch, armoured and on her steed, ready to stand by them to repel the Catholic invasion. This image of Elizabeth has been the key to our popular perception of her for centuries, but there’s much more to her. Elizabeth was cunning and capricious, but she could be blinded by affection,

She fought off foreign invasions and domestic rebellions but did she really

preside over a golden age? Written by Jonathan Hatfull

ELIZABETH

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THE TURBULENT REIGN OF

De Lisle is the author of numerous books including After Elizabeth and The Sisters Who Would

Be Queen, which was a top ten best-seller. Her latest book is Tudor; The Family Story and is published by Chatto and is available now.

LEANDA DE LISLE

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HOW GOOD WAS ELIZABETH AT BALANCING THE BOOKS?While the popular image is that Mary left England in a sorry state, Leanda de Lisle explains that Elizabeth’s fiscal behaviour was far from immaculate. Mary left England £227,000 in debt, while her sister produced debts of £350,000. “Mary’s reign was not a ‘disaster’. The popular image of Mary – always 'Bloody Mary', rarely Mary I – has been greatly influenced by a combination of sexual and religious prejudice,” explains De Lisle: “Mary I had named Elizabeth as her heir, despite her personal feelings towards her sister, and so allowed the crown to be inherited peacefully. Elizabeth continued to refuse to name anyone. In 1562, believing she was dying, she asked for Robert Dudley to be made Lord Protector with an income of £20,000.” Elizabeth was notoriously reluctant to engage in warfare because of its costs and risk, but the Spanish conflict dragged on for years, while she awarded monopolies to her favourites at court and crops failed. “While we remember Elizabeth’s success in repelling the Armada in 1588," says De Lisle, "We forget that the war continued and impoverished the country and the crown, a situation made worse by the corruption of court officials including notorious high-ranking figures such as Robert Cecil. People starved in the 1590s and the elite even began to fear possible revolution.”

VerdictElizabeth was forced to deal with circ*mstances beyond her control, such as poor harvests and an ongoing conflict with Spain, but the fact is that she was not the financial marvel many believe her to be.

Borrowing money in the 16th centuryBefore the English merchant Thomas Gresham came to prominence, the Tudors had borrowed money from the great European banks such as the Antwerp Exchange. However, these banks charged a high interest rate and it was generally acknowledged that going around Europe borrowing money did nothing to improve England’s image as a serious power. Money could also be borrowed from independent merchants, such as Horatio Palavicino, who Elizabeth was forced to borrow money from late in her reign. Gresham had previously helped Edward VI rid himself of most of his debts and founded the Royal Exchange in 1571 to challenge the power of Antwerp.

Now that Elizabeth could seek loans from within her realm, she was able to exert greater pressure to get what she wanted, while Parliament could grant her more funds if they wanted. Later in her reign, she began to use increasingly severe taxation, which contributed to her decreasing popularity.

if only temporarily. She was tremendously clever, with an almost unfailing sense of what her people wanted or needed from her, but had to see off foreign invasion attempts and homegrown rebellions. While she was sitting on the throne of England the country became acquainted with some of its greatest triumphs and darkest hours.

When Elizabeth came to the throne in November 1558, the whole of Europe was on tenterhooks. How would the new Protestant queen follow the reign of her Catholic sister Mary? With an unstable nation and conspiracies at home and abroad, the situation required diplomacy, intelligence and bravery; three qualities of which Elizabeth had always had in ample supply. In fact, the unstable situation was nothing new to her; Elizabeth’s position had been precarious from the moment she was born. The daughter of Henry VIII’s second wife, Anne Boleyn, she was immediately deemed as illegitimate by any Catholic nations, who regarded the king’s divorce of Catherine of Aragon as illegal. In their eyes, Catherine’s daughter Mary was the only rightful heir to the throne.

“She was tremendously clever, with an almost unfailing sense of what her people wanted, or needed from her”

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Although both parents had been desperate for a boy, Anne would be a doting mother to her infant child, but she was sent to the executioner’s block in 1536 after failing to produce a male heir for her king. Although Henry’s third wife Jane Seymour was kind to Elizabeth and Mary, she had her own child to attend to with the birth of her son and Henry’s heir, Edward. Henry himself would not see much of Elizabeth until 1542, when he decided the time had come to reacquaint himself with his young daughter. He found her to be intelligent and charming, and decided that he would reinstate both Mary and Elizabeth back into his lineage.

In 1543, Henry married Catherine Parr, his last wife, and relations within the royal family warmed, as Mary took a maternal interest in young Edward, while Elizabeth enjoyed a sisterly relationship with both. However, when Edward took the throne upon their father’s death, cracks started to form. First, Elizabeth had to contend with the amorous attentions of Catherine’s new husband Thomas Seymour, which caused a scandal at court in 1548. Seymour’s intentions were seen as treasonous, and Elizabeth was

ELIZABETH

Queen Elizabeth I opening the Royal Exchange

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Picture depicting the coronation of Elizabeth I in 1558

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another attempted rebellion in 1555, but her sister’s patience was wearing thin and Elizabeth was placed in the Tower of London, with some Catholic supporters clamouring for her execution. Elizabeth’s future prospects were looking anything but golden, and the next few months saw her walking a political tightrope. Mary, desperate to provide her husband and her country with a Catholic heir to end the uncertainty surrounding the throne, announced that she was pregnant, but by 1558, it became clear that Mary’s condition was not pregnancy, but a devastating illness. Her health broke quickly, and she died on 17 November of that year after begging Elizabeth to keep England Catholic once she took the throne. Her wishes would not be fulfilled.

Elizabeth’s coronation was a stunning balancing act. With countless eyes waiting for any hint of an

ELIZABETH

The Church of England was one of compromise and middle ground. While she herself was a Protestant, she didn’t hold the puritanical beliefs of some of her council members. She introduced the Act of Supremacy in 1558, which reaffirmed England’s separation from Rome and established her as the head of the Church. Elizabeth understood the dangers of trying to impose religion and allowed Catholicism to continue, provided it took place in secret.

However, Leanna de Lisle reminds us that we should not forget Elizabeth’s willingness to crack down when necessary. “Elizabeth’s conservatism and pragmatism has seen her described as a religious moderate, in contrast to the ‘fanatical’ Mary,” she explains. “But as the new Protestant queen of a largely Catholic country Elizabeth was necessarily moderate, and as her reign grew longer, she proved that, like Mary, she could be utterly ruthless when faced by a threat. The hundreds of executions of villagers following the Northern Rebellion far exceeded anything her predecessors had done in similar circ*mstances; her later persecution of Catholics was also relentless and cruel. It is a little-known fact that she also burned heretics – namely Anabaptists – these were far fewer in number than Mary’s victims, but then there weren’t that many Anabaptists!" She executed both Protestants and Catholics for publicly disobeying the laws of the Church of England. However, events in Europe show the English queen in a much more favourable light. Comparatively, Elizabeth was extremely tolerant. The St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris showed the fervour with which Catholic Europeans detested Protestants. She was also much more tolerant than many of her advisors.

VerdictElizabeth successfully found a moderate middle ground in a very turbulent time, but would crack down mercilessly if the rules she had laid down were broken.

Catholic1The services were

held in Latin, countermanding the reformation’s ideal that everyone should be able to understand. The English prayer book was banned.

2 Church furnishings were restored to their

former lavish state and the buildings were now decorated completely with Catholic artwork.

3 Catholic Mass was reintroduced, and Holy

Communion was now banned by law.

4 The clergy were not allowed to marry.

Priests who had married before the new law came into effect were given a choice of two options: Leave their families or lose their job.

C of E1The image of the

minister became much simpler. They were not allowed to wear Roman Catholic vestments, such as the surplice.

2 All rood lofts, a screen portraying the

crucifixion, a common feature in Catholic churches, were removed. The Pope was not the head of the church.

3 The Bishop’s Bible, which was in English

rather than Latin, was restored, opening it up to a wider readership.

4 There was a general removal of

'superstition', such as making the sign of the cross during communion. Simplicity was what the Puritans strived for.

VS

overtly Protestant or Catholic gestures, Elizabeth managed to confound them all. Instead, the emphasis was elsewhere: Elizabeth’s intention to restore England to a state of prosperity. The new queen knew that if she was to have any chance of surviving her early years she would need trusted and astute advisors, and chose William Cecil and Robert Dudley. Cecil had worked for Edward, survived the reign of Mary and was fiercely loyal to Elizabeth. In contrast, Dudley’s appointment and favour with the queen had nothing to do with his abilities as a politician. He had known Elizabeth since childhood and her affection for him had only grown stronger, and rumours abounded that she spent the nights as well as the days with him.

Cecil disapproved of Dudley and agreed with the majority of Parliament that Elizabeth should marry as soon as possible. The eyes of France and

“The queen's reprisal was brutal and swift, executing not only the ringleaders, but also Jane Grey”

reported to be pregnant. The young princess denied these rumours, confounding her interrogator. “She hath a very good wit and nothing is gotten of her but by great policy,” he wrote. This practice would serve her well once Mary took the throne but not all players were as skilled in the game of thrones; Seymour was executed the following year.

When the staunchly Catholic Mary refused to convert, Edward began proceedings to remove both his sisters from the line to the throne, fixing his hopes on his cousin, Lady Jane Grey, instead. However, the prince was seldom in good health during his short life, so it was no surprise that he died before the contract could be finalised and Mary became the new queen of England. Just as Edward had asked Mary to change her faith, the new queen was determined that her sister should convert. She acquiesced without enthusiasm, but it was clear to both Protestants and Catholics that her true allegiance still lay with her father’s Church of England rather than the Pope’s Catholic Church. Over the course of Mary’s reign, many conspiracy plots were designed to get Elizabeth onto the throne. None of them succeeded, but they did almost manage to get her killed.

In 1554, Thomas Wyatt attempted a rebellion following the announcement that Mary would marry the Spanish king Philip. The queen’s reprisal was brutal and swift, executing not only the ringleaders, but Jane Grey as well. Elizabeth claimed ignorance, a trick she managed to successfully repeat a year later after

Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, who was executed after being found guilty of plotting against Elizabeth I

WAS A RELIGIOUS COMPROMISE MET?

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Spain were fixed on England and it made sense for the queen to create a marriage alliance with one of these major powers for her and the country’s safety. King Philip made no secret of his desire to marry Elizabeth, but she had no interest in marrying Mary’s former husband. Henry of Anjou was suggested as a match, but he was still a child. Elizabeth spoke instead of being married to her nation, but scandal struck when Dudley’s wife Amy died suddenly after apparently falling down the stairs in 1560. It was rumoured that Dudley had committed the deed for his queen, and Elizabeth was forced to expel him from her court.

In 1561, Elizabeth’s cousin, Mary Queen of Scots, returned to Scotland from France. For many Catholics, Mary was the true successor and she did little to downplay those clamouring for a Catholic monarch. Her arrival was perfectly timed, as Elizabeth was on the verge of death due to smallpox. However, she recovered and, with the scandal over Dudley dissipating, Elizabeth chose him to be Lord Protector, bringing him back into her court, before shocking everyone by suggesting

“The Queen rallied the English troops by

declaring that she would fight by their side to repel anyone who dared to set

foot on their land”

Although the expansion of trade into India occurred during Elizabeth’s reign, in terms of exploration she is best remembered for England’s attempt to colonise North America. The Spanish and Portuguese had already laid claim to much of South America, establishing lucrative trade routes, but North America was relatively unexplored. Elizabeth was reluctant to fund exploratory voyages for much the same reasons that she was reluctant to fund wars: they were expensive and risky. However, she could be won around with the promise of riches from one of her favourites and, when sailor Davy Ingram returned to England with alluring tales of riches and simple inhabitants, geographer Richard Hakluyt began plotting a serious expedition to be led by Walter Raleigh.

With the promise of fortune and the flattery of Raleigh, she agreed to a trip to form a colony

1. 1584Walter Raleigh and Richard Hakluyt convince Elizabeth to fund an expedition to explore the possibility that a colony could be founded on America’s east coast.

named after her: Virginia. The first party launched, and Raleigh would follow. When the nobleman arrived, he saw the settlement had failed. The English were desperate to leave. Raleigh’s second attempt was intended for Chesapeake Bay, but the first group, led by John White, returned to Roanoke. Raleigh arrived with his second group and found no trace of survivors. Elizabeth was disappointed that these costly ventures yielded no results. There was one purpose to these expeditions, as de Lisle explains very simply: “Making money.”

VerdictThe Elizabethan era’s reputation for exploration is largely due to the fact that there was money to be made from it. Piratical ventures were profitable; colonisation was not.

3. 1587Raleigh tries again to establish a colony at Chesapeake Bay, but instead the settlers travel to Roanoke. When Raleigh arrives, all 150 colonists have disappeared, with only a single skeleton remaining.

DID ELIZABETH HAVE A GENUINE THIRST FOR NEW WORLDS?

2. 1585Following a positive report, Raleigh dispatches colonists to settle at Roanoke in Virginia. By the time he arrives on a later ship, the crops have failed and the English are desperate to leave.

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had begun. As the rebel forces marched south, Elizabeth moved Mary to Coventry and mustered troops of her own. The southern Earls rallied to her cause, which stunned the rebel forces, who began to retreat. Elizabeth’s victory was quick and decisive, with 700 men being executed in a brutal display of power. Norfolk was placed under arrest, but a lack of concrete evidence postponed his execution, until he was implicated in the Ridolfi plot, which aimed to make Philip II king. Elizabeth ordered and rescinded Norfolk’s execution three times – a prime example of how indecisive she could be at times – before finally deciding that he simply had to die.

If Elizabeth’s position at home appeared shaky it was positively stable compared to how she was viewed abroad. The Pope decreed that anyone who murdered the heretical English queen would be forgiven, a statement King Philip took to heart. Not wanting to risk open war, Elizabeth found other ways to aggravate her enemies. She quietly patronised the piratical exploits of John Hawkins and later his cousin Francis Drake. In 1577, when he planned to travel to South America to raid Spanish gold, Elizabeth met Drake with Walsingham, one of her French ambassadors.

The cautious Cecil had to be kept in the dark, but she told Drake explicitly that she supported

The return of Mary Queen of Scots to Edinburgh

Queen Elizabeth I knighting Francis Drake in 1581

a marriage between him and Mary. This was Elizabeth showing her political astuteness; she knew well that Scotland with a Catholic heir would have too much power, but a heir produced by her favourite and Mary Queen of Scots could potentially unite the two countries. However, Dudley refused and Mary had no interest in marrying her cousin’s paramour.

Instead, Mary married for love, choosing Lord Henry Darnley. Seeing this may have prompted Elizabeth to renew her interest in Dudley, which greatly upset the council, in particular the ambitious Lord Norfolk. When the tension between Norfolk and Dudley grew too great, Elizabeth understood that she needed to assert her authority. “I will have here but one mistress and no master,” she told Dudley. It was both a political statement and a personal one. The lack of a husband and heir was only made worse in 1566 when Mary gave birth to a son, James, but she was desperately unhappy. Darnley was a violent, drunken husband who many believed brutally murdered her secret lover, David Rizzio. Darnley would meet his own nasty end a year later, when he was found strangled in the garden of a house. Mary quickly married the Earl of Bothwell, the man who had allegedly murdered Darnley, and Scottish forces rose against her. Imprisoned and forced to abdicate, she eventually fled to England. Elizabeth agreed to give Mary shelter, but her arrival in the north had given Catholics a figurehead and rebellion brewed.

The northern Earls suggested that Norfolk should marry Mary: soon, the Northern Rebellion

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him: “I would gladly be revenged on the King of Spain for diverse injuries I have received.” Having sailed through the Straits of Magellan and captured a Spanish ship carrying up to £200,000 in gold, Drake decided to sail across the Pacific, in the process becoming the first man to circumnavigate the globe. Elizabeth gloried in his achievement, and when she met the Spanish ambassador in 1581, she pointedly wore a crucifix Drake had given to her from the loot. She dined with Drake on the Golden Hind and knighted him. He had done her proud.

These piratical exploits stood in sharp contrast to the events of 1572. The St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris – the assassination of a number of French Calvinist Protestants – shocked England and the ambassador Sir Francis Walsingham was forced to take refuge. Elizabeth brought him back to London to become her spymaster, where he advised that Mary Queen of Scots was a real danger. The uprising was not only a shocking scene for English Protestants; it was also a sign that the Protestant Netherlands and their booming wool trade would soon be in danger. When William the Silent asked Elizabeth for military assistance, she did not want to be seen to intervene and give Philip of Spain an excuse to attack. Walsingham counselled war, while Cecil continued to preach marriage. So Elizabeth entertained the idea of marrying the Duke of Anjou, roughly ten years after it had first been suggested. Then, he had been an ugly youth and she had been a beautiful queen. Now, she was visibly older and the flattery of the French ambassador and Anjou’s letters began to win her over. When they finally met, it appeared that Elizabeth really was in love, but there were genuine concerns over how the English people would react.

“The anxieties Elizabeth expressed to the emissary of Mary Queen of Scots in 1561, that she too could not marry anyone without triggering unrest in one group or another, only deepened following Mary Queen of Scots’s disastrous marriages to Darnley and then Bothwell – which ended in her overthrow,” explains Leanda de Lisle, author of Tudor: The Family Story. “Elizabeth continued to look publicly for a husband to fulfil national expectations that she would provide them with an undisputed heir, and surely she hoped it was not impossible. She was married to her kingdom – a phrase she had learned from Mary Tudor. But while Mary had married, Elizabeth did not because she feared revolt by those who disapproved of her choice.”

Although she clearly wanted to marry the man that she had nicknamed her “frog,” the English people found the idea of their Virgin Queen marrying a French Catholic absolutely repulsive. When a pamphlet appeared that condemned the union, Elizabeth decreed that both the author and his printer should have their right hands cut off. Her Privy Council was split in half, with the jealous Robert Dudley vehemently opposed.

MAIN PLAYERS OF THE GOLDEN AGE

A canny political operator who understood the difficulties that were ahead, Cecil was Elizabeth’s first appointment and was fiercely loyal, dedicating his life to helping her. Although he believed she should marry, Elizabeth knew Cecil was invaluable and pressured him into staying on, even when he was sickly and deaf.

1520-98WILLIAM CECIL

Dudley had known Elizabeth since childhood, and was her first love. His appointment to court had more to do with her affection for him than any outstanding abilities as a politician, however, and his presence at court proved to be a continual source of rumour and scandal. Their relationship was rocky and driven by passion.

1532-88ROBERT DUDLEY

The Protestant Walsingham was allowed to return to England after Mary’s death, and quickly became one of Elizabeth’s most invaluable assets. A brilliant spymaster and politician, he understood the threat that Mary Queen of Scots posed, and engineered her downfall. He also supported Drake and Raleigh’s explorations.

1532-90

FRANCIS WALSINGHAM

Henry was desperate for a boy to carry on his family name, and was disappointed when Anne Boleyn gave him Elizabeth. He was absent for much of her childhood, but was kept informed of her progress nonetheless. When he finally met his daughter he was very impressed, so much so that he reinstated her and Mary into his legacy.

1491-1547HENRY VIII

Despite their differences, Mary, Elizabeth and their brother Edward had a relatively close relationship as children. When she became queen, Mary was desperate for Elizabeth to convert and unable to understand why she wouldn’t. She came close to executing her sister, but abstained, finally requesting that she keep England Catholic.

1516-58MARY TUDOR

Catherine and Elizabeth became close during her marriage to Henry, and Elizabeth lived with Catherine after his death. However, Catherine’s husband Thomas Seymour was more interested in their young charge than his wife, and she assisted in his attempts at seduction, dying soon after they failed.

1512–48

CATHERINE PARR

Council and Government

Family

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ELIZABETH

MAIN PLAYERS OF THE GOLDEN AGE

Hawkins may have possessed a coat of arms, but he first managed to find favour with the Queen as a pirate. With Elizabeth’s implicit permission, he planned and executed a series of daring raids on Spanish ports in the West Indies, but after a disastrous third voyage he returned to England, where he began working for the Queen in a more direct capacity.

1532-95JOHN HAWKINS

Having sailed on his cousin John Hawkins’ expeditions, Francis Drake had no love for the Spanish. He was willing to circumnavigate the globe in order to rob them of their riches and deliver them to Elizabeth, who was delighted with his exploits, and continued to commission him to undertake raids on Spanish ports.

1540-96FRANCIS DRAKE

Raleigh gained Elizabeth’s favour at court and quickly set his sights on expanding her empire. He decided he would establish Britain’s first colony in North America, and told the Queen it would be named after her: Virginia. To his great dismay, the colony at Roanoke failed. He is often falsely credited with bringing potatoes and tobacco to England.

1554-1618

WALTER RALEIGH

As the head of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Pius V saw Elizabeth’s status of Queen of England and head of its church not only as an affront to his religion, but as an act of heresy. He went as far as to issue a Papal Bull on 27 April 1570, which declared that her subjects no longer owed her any kind of allegiance.

1504-72POPE PIUS V

As the issue of religious tolerance became increasingly difficult to manage, Elizabeth hand-picked her old chaplain for the role of Archbishop of Canterbury. He was a stubborn man, as evidenced by his refusal to leave England during Queen Mary’s reign. Like Elizabeth, he was a Conformist and ruthlessly punished those who publicly strayed from the 'right' path.

1530-1604JOHN WHITGIFT

The main religious threat to Elizabeth for the majority of her realm came from the King of Spain. The Pope might have given the bull that deposed Elizabeth but the fiercely Catholic Philip was the man with the army that could enforce it. He had attempted to woo the princess while still married to her sister but, once rebuffed, relentlessly opposed her.

1527-1598

KING PHILIP II

Elizabeth was heartbroken, but she agreed to abstain. She gave Anjou £10,000 to continue his war against Philip in the Netherlands, but did not see him again. He tried to take power for himself but failed and died a year later.

When William the Silent was assassinated in his own house in 1584 by a Catholic fanatic, it was clear that military intervention could not be put off any longer and so in 1585, to the relief of her impatient councillors, she agreed to send a small force of men. Dudley took command in the Netherlands but proved to be incompetent, losing territory to Philip’s general, the Duke of Parma. Mary was now more dangerous than ever. Elizabeth ordered her imprisonment at the urging of Francis Walsingham, who had no intention of allowing her to live much longer. He arranged for a servant, one of his own spies, to suggest that Mary smuggle letters in beer barrels, allowing Walsingham to read everything. When Thomas Babingdon wrote to Mary with a plan to assassinate Elizabeth and give her the crown Mary wrote back with her approval; the spymaster’s trap had worked perfectly, and he had ensnared his unwitting prey.

Walsingham leapt into action and ordered the conspirators’ execution. Elizabeth had always been reluctant to execute her cousin, but she agreed she would have to stand trial. It was no surprise when the court decided that Mary should be put to death. Elizabeth grieved for Mary, or at least lamented her death. The man who had delivered the warrant was imprisoned and stripped of his title. Elizabeth was always reluctant to sign a death

“she bitterly resented the

circ*mstances of Mary’s execution”

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Mary Queen of Scots being led to her death

Explorers

Enemies

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“With the threat of a catholic force at their

door, the Queen rallied the spirits of the english troops”

warrant – or at least she was reluctant to be seen to sign it. We can’t know how much of Elizabeth’s grief was genuine, but she bitterly resented the circ*mstances of Mary’s execution.

“Elizabeth was reluctant to be seen to execute first the senior nobleman in England, in Norfolk, and then a fellow queen, in Mary,” says de Lisle: “That is not to say she regretted their deaths. She would have preferred to have Mary murdered, for example, as she made very clear. It is also notable that she was quite ruthless in ordering the deaths of traitors of humble birth – the 900 or so executed after the Northern Rebellion testifies to that. This was three times the numbers Henry VIII had executed after the far more serious Pilgrimage of Grace, and ten times the numbers Mary executed after Wyatt’s revolt.”

Mary’s execution provided Philip II with the reason he needed to declare war and his Spanish Armada co-ordinated with the Duke of Parma’s forces in the Netherlands, with the two forces meeting before sailing on England. They launched on 12 July 1588, their forces possessing more than twice the number of English ships, but the English ships did have some advantages; they were smaller, faster, and designed to carry guns rather than men. The English ships could outmanoeuvre the

Defeat of the Spanish Armada

The Spanish Armada is put into disarray by English fire ships on 8 August 1588

The gun-crew on an Elizabethan ship – she funded the journeys of numerous privateers

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Spanish fleet in open water and began to engage them in small skirmishes. It was at this point that Elizabeth rode out to meet her troops. With the threat of a Catholic force at their door, the Queen rallied the spirit of the English troops by declaring that she would fight by their side to repel anyone who dared to set foot on their land.

This grandstanding was impressive and may have gone down in history’s annals but was ultimately unnecessary. The Spanish Armada failed and Elizabeth’s victory was the seal on her status. ‘The Golden Age’ had begun, where art and literature flowered. With England a visibly powerful state, the aristocracy began to patronise the arts with great abandon. The famous playwrights of the age enjoyed patronage, albeit with some caveats. When Shakespeare wrote Richard II he was encouraged to remove a scene suggesting the ageing monarch should step aside. “Elizabeth did not care for plays,” confirms de Lisle: “All too often they were used to lecture her on this or that.”

Her crown may have been safe for now, but she received devastating blows with the deaths of two of her most trusted advisors, Dudley and Walsingham. Dudley was replaced at court by his handsome stepson, the Earl of Essex, and the young flatterer quickly became her favourite. “Robert Dudley’s death in 1588 signalled the passing of the old order, but Elizabeth still hoped she could continue ruling according to her motto, ‘Semper Eadem’ (‘Always the same’)” explains de Lisle. “As the years began to pass and her servants died she either did not replace them or find a near-equivalent to the servant she had lost.” It’s

Elizabeth’s foreign policy was decidedly more cautious than expansive. She was desperate to avoid conflict because it was expensive and the outcome always uncertain. However, she had a spirit that could easily be won over by the idea of adventure. She delighted in the expeditions of John Hawkins and Francis Drake, which could be seen to be aggravating the King of Spain without actually declaring open conflict. In 1562, she agreed to a military expedition in Calais, which was crushed by Catherine de’ Medici’s forces, and this failure would influence her military decisions for the rest of her reign.

“There was no glory in it for Elizabeth as there was for a male monarch,” Leanda de Lisle reveals: “She understood the truth of the adage of Mary of Hungary: that war made it impossible for a woman to rule effectively, ‘all she can do is shoulder responsibility for mistakes committed by others.’”

Her ally and enemy lines were drawn by religion. France and Spain were clearly opposed to England on

these grounds, which is why her courtiers were so anxious that Elizabeth marry an eligible man from either country. Even after the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572, Elizabeth was reluctant to be drawn into open war. The piecemeal way in which she gave the Dutch her assistance shows her reluctance to engage in open conflict of any kind, first offering financial support to the Dutch troops, then the Duke of Anjou, before finally agreeing to send an English force when there was no other option. Her cautious attitude towards foreign policy doubtless saved the kingdom a lot of money. However, it was taken out of her hands when the Spanish Armada sailed on England.”

VerdictThe victory against the Armada was a shining moment but for the most part Elizabeth kept out of foreign conflict. When she didn’t, she regularly suffered defeats.

Why did the Armada fail? King Philip amassed his Armada and sent them to the Netherlands to join up with his ground troops, led by the Duke of Parma. The English outposts saw the ships coming and alerted the admiralty. The weather was against the Spanish, as they were blown off course. While they outnumbered the British fleet by two to one, the Spanish ships were enormous, built to carry troops that could board enemy vessels. Their crescent formation was famous, but it did little against the smaller English ships. When the English sent fireships into the Spanish fleet, the enemy panicked and scattered. They managed to regroup for one confrontation, and lost. The Spanish retreated, with many crashing on the rocks of the English and Irish coastline.

3. Early warningThe Armada is sighted west of the English Channel. The English fleet is put to sea as the south coast warning beacons are lit. Legend says that Sir Francis Drake finishes his game of bowls first.

7. Ships wreckedThe weather blows the Spanish fleet into the North Sea and they are forced to retreat up England’s east coast, beyond Scotland and down past Ireland. Many ships are wrecked.

DID ENGLAND BECOME A NATION TO BE FEARED?

4. RendezvousThe Armada sails to Calais to meet Philip’s most revered general, the Duke of Parma. However, he is delayed and they are forced to wait.

5. FireshipsSpanish commanders panic when the English navy sends fireships in among their vessels. They scatter into the English line of fire but the losses are not too heavy.

6. Bad weatherBad weather prevents the Spanish fleet from organising and the English pursue them. Their ships are faster and much more effective.

1. Armada sets sailOn 28 May 1588, Philip is ready to begin his invasion of England. He gathers his Armada and they sail from Lisbon.

2. Delays Severe weather forces Philip to dock in Coruna to make repairs to his fleet. He is delayed by more than a month.

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ELIZABETH’S GOLDEN MOMENTS2. 1566 Elizabeth announces to a Parliament desperate to see her choose a husband that she is married to England.

4. 1577 Francis Drake circumnavigates the globe and returns with boats filled with riches stolen from the King of Spain.

5. 1587 Elizabeth is forced to execute Mary Queen of Scots, which is the final straw for Catholic Spain.

6. 1588 The Spanish Armada sails for England, but is decisively defeated. Elizabeth delivers her famous Tilbury speech from horseback, which becomes legend.

3. 1569 The Northern Rebellion is crushed. Elizabeth brutally punishes those responsible and sends a shocking reminder to anyone who would challenge her.

a sign of how much she leaned on her old guard that she continued to place her trust in William Cecil, even though he was almost entirely deaf and increasingly ill. It was only when he died in 1598 that Elizabeth finally agreed to appoint Robert Cecil to his father’s old post. When it became known that the Spanish were attempting to rebuild their fleet, Essex led a fleet on Cadiz and decimated their forces in port. The success gave Essex fame, something Elizabeth was taken aback by. She tried to curb him, aware that her standing among the people was her greatest asset, but Essex continued to promote his own celebrity. She became more and more frustrated with his outrageous behaviour at court, which came to a

“She wooed her people with smiles, words of love and great

showmanship, and so won their hearts”

The early years of Elizabeth’s reign were extremely unstable. The Catholics regarded her as a heretical bastard without a just claim to the throne, and she had to prove to her people that she was capable of ruling alone. Conspiracies at home and abroad plotted to remove her from the throne, and when Mary, Queen of Scots took refuge in England, her Catholic enemies finally had someone to rally around. 1569 saw her face the first real uprising with the Northern Rebellion. The Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland rallied the rebel aristocracy around them, but they were not prepared for the force of her reprisal.

In her later years she saw rebellion rear its head again as Essex overstepped his bounds. With famine and overcrowded of cities, Elizabeth’s position became unstable once again. “Imagine if Elizabeth had died in October 1562 when she had smallpox,” asks de Lisle: “Elizabeth had been on the throne almost four years: only a year short of her sister’s reign. If she died, as many feared she would, how would her reign have been remembered? Elizabeth’s religious settlement was not viewed as settled by anyone save the Queen. One of her own bishops called it ‘a leaden mediocrity’. In military matters, while Mary I’s loss of Calais is still remembered, Elizabeth’s failed efforts to recover Calais by taking Le Havre and using it as a bargaining tool are completely forgotten. The campaign had ended that August 1562, with the huge loss of 2,000 men.”

VerdictElizabeth’s reign featured numerous rebellions and uprisings, but this was not unusual for a Tudor monarch, and given the religious uncertainty in the country at the time, she handled the uprisings quickly and decisively.

Rebellions against Elizabeth When Elizabeth ascended to the throne she immediately faced the threat of rebellion from the Catholic nobility, who resented the fact that she was turning away from the changes made by her sister Mary. The first great uprising came in 1569, when the northern noblemen took advantage of the return of Mary, Queen of Scots to England, and attempted to overthrow her. The Duke of Norfolk, unhappy with being sidelined by the Earl of Dudley, entertained a marriage plot with Mary, while the northern Earls mounted rebellion. It was summarily crushed and hundreds were executed.

The Earl of Essex, Elizabeth’s great favourite, attempted a rebellion in 1601 after he was stripped of his powers in an attempt to gain power. In line with his apparently oversized ego, he overestimated his personal popularity, the people’s dissatisfaction with their monarch and his Queen’s capacity for forgiveness for one of her former favourites. When Elizabeth was confronted with open defiance she rarely hesitated to crush it. She understood when to be brutal and when to charm. With the rebellions against her she was unforgiving and generally unsparing.

DID PEACE REIGN IN ENGLAND?

dramatic head when he half-drew his sword on her in a fit of pique.

The arts and literature may have been flourishing, but those who subscribe to this being a golden age in England’s history often forget that even after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, other uprisings, such as the 1598 Irish rebellion, occurred. The country had long been a problem for Tudor England, which had attempted to impose English values and had seen the Irish as tenants on English territory. Now, with a Spanish-backed uprising, Elizabeth needed to take decisive action. She sent her army at the start of 1599, led by Essex, who was looking to prove himself once more. He was a disaster. Rather than confronting

Tyrone on the battlefield, he met him in secret and returned to England having made a treaty without the queen’s authority.

When Essex thought Cecil was plotting against him, he rushed to plead his case. Assuming he was still the queen’s favourite, he burst into her bedchamber while she was preparing for the day. He had seen Elizabeth without her make-up and regal dressing; not as a queen but as an old woman. She could not afford to be seen like this. The queen dismissed him before summoning him later to confront him with his failures and strip him of power. Rather than accepting his fate, Essex attempted rebellion. He assumed Londoners would back the popular war hero, but Elizabeth proclaimed him a traitor and sent her troops to meet him. The rebellion was a failure and Essex was executed as a traitor.

Although the later years of Elizabeth’s reign were far from golden, she could still rally her people when needed. The war in Ireland was expensive and unsuccessful, while overcrowding and failed harvests caused agitation. When Parliament publicly condemned her for granting monopolies to her favourite courtiers, which had led to price-fixing, Elizabeth was forced to address them in 1601. She agreed to put a stop to the monopolies and she reaffirmed her love for England. She won over Parliament, there was a good harvest, and a truce was reached in Ireland and Spain. “Elizabeth, old and ill, did lose some of her former grip, but never entirely,” states de Lisle. “She had followed Mary I’s example in wooing the common people from the beginning of her reign, and they continued to support her.”

Having seen off another uprising, the 50-year-old monarch’s health was failing and after an all-too-rare period of good health, Elizabeth grew sickly. She was desperately frustrated by Cecil’s growing

1550 1555 16051560 1565 1570 1575 1580 1585 1590 1595 1600

1. 1559 Elizabeth is crowned Queen of England. Everyone watches to see if she displays a Protestant leaning but the ceremony is ambiguous.

7. 1601 Following famine and controversy over her granting monopolies to her favourites, Elizabeth gives her ‘Golden Speech’ to a furious Parliament and wins them over.

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power over her and refused to go to bed as she realised that the end was coming soon. Elizabeth finally died on 23 March 1603.

Although she had struggled to change with the times in the face of younger advisors, she had been a formidable political operator. She had still shown the cunning and cleverness to understand her situation, and had never lost the image of a queen loved by her people.

“That image was not created for her,” explains de Lisle. “Elizabeth never forgot the events of 1553 when the ordinary people had backed the Tudor sisters, while the political elite had supported Jane Grey. Nor did she forget how in 1554, Mary had made a speech at the Guildhall that roused London in her defence against the Wyatt rebellion. Mary had spoken of her marriage to her kingdom, describing her coronation ring as a wedding band, and her love of her subjects as that of a mother for her children. These were the phrases and motifs Elizabeth would use repeatedly and would become absolutely central to her reign. In addition, Elizabeth also had an instinct for the crowd’s demands. Even her enemies would admit she had ‘the power of enchantment’. She wooed her people with smiles, words of love and great showmanship, and so won their hearts. Elizabeth’s people would never forget her. When she died and James I become king, people hugely missed the Tudor theatre of reciprocal love, of which Elizabeth had been the last and brightest star.”

Elizabeth’s reign was not the golden age that legend so often depicts; she faced serious uprisings, both internal and external, during her reign. She was capable of heartlessness and ruthlessness, and could be indecisive and impetuous. During the course of her rule, England saw famine, rebellion and war. However, there’s no mistaking her dedication to her country and her determination to listen to what the people wanted from her – and then give it to them. She walked a political tightrope for most of her life, and the fact that she died peacefully in her bed as queen was a major triumph in itself. The English people loved her, and she, in turn, loved them. In the hearts and minds of many of her subjects, she was – and will always be – Britain’s golden monarch.

The deathbed of Queen Elizabeth in 1603

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Boudica Vs Rome

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While Boudica of the Iceni was still mourning the death of her husband Prasutagus, a horde of Roman agents forced their way into her home. The armed men seized the Celtic queen,

along with her two daughters, and dragged them all into public view. There, before the eyes of her people, Boudica was brutally flogged as if she were a slave and her two virgin daughters raped. When the violence was over, the Romans continued their acts of cruelty on the Iceni by confiscating the land of their chief nobles. Furious at their actions, the queen quickly gathered her people. She would stop at nothing until she had her revenge against the Roman Empire.

The Roman commanders gave the orders for these acts in 60 CE after they received the will of recently deceased King Prasutagus. To show his loyalty to Rome, the British ruler left half of his kingdom to the emperor, but bequeathed the other half to his daughters – an act of love that would backfire in ways he could never have imagined. According to Roman law, contracts with client kings terminated upon their death, and thus turn all of the possessions of the kingdom into Roman property. Usually, this transition from a native monarchy to Roman rule was carried out with far less brutality, in the hope of gaining the loyalty and allegiance of the newly conquered people.

In the single-minded pursuit of vengeance, the warrior queen of

the Iceni massacred thousands of Romans and almost caused the

empire to abandon Britannia entirely

BOUDICA ROME

Written by Erich B Anderson

VS

vengeance, the warrior queen of vengeance, the warrior queen of the Iceni massacred thousands of the Iceni massacred thousands of the Iceni massacred thousands of

empire to abandon Britannia entirelyempire to abandon Britannia entirelyempire to abandon Britannia entirelyempire to abandon Britannia entirelyempire to abandon Britannia entirely

BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA BOUDICA

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Boudica Vs Rome

Yet the Romans were greatly insulted, not just because Prasutagus presumed to think he could leave such a large portion of his kingdom to his heirs – the shocking reaction to his will was mostly because these heirs were women. While powerful women were relatively common among the Britons, female rulers were an absurd concept in the patriarchal society of Rome. And the Romans would make their feelings about this very clear.

It did not take long for thousands of aggrieved Britons to hear of the uprising of the Iceni, as well as the atrocities committed on Boudica and her family. The Romans had only conquered Britannia less than 20 years before, during the reign of Emperor Claudius

in 43 CE, and the oppressive treatment of their new subjects by imperial officials had created

numerous rebels all over the island. For several years after the conquest,

most insurgents became a part of the full-fledged guerrilla war led by Caratacus, king of the Catuvellauni. After the decisive victories of the Romans over

his forces during the invasion, the king learned not to face the

legions on the battlefield, instead using his superior knowledge of the local terrain to carry out successful

guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.Though the Iceni officially

became allies of the Roman Empire after the conquest, a faction of the Iceni also participated in a minor revolt in 48 CE, when the governor

Publius Ostorius Scapula enacted a draconian measure to

discourage Britons from joining Caratacus. The governor had his

men force their way into the homes of the Iceni and confiscated all weapons. However, when the Iceni insurgents revolted with warriors from the neighbouring Catuvellauni and Coritani, they had no chance against the Roman army. Scapula quickly crushed the rebel forces when he stormed the Iceni hill fort they fought from and slaughtered all of the rebels.

The Iceni had more than enough cause to rally behind their queen, but the main reason Britons from other tribes flocked to swell her ranks was that they no longer had any major rebel army to join. In 51 CE, Scapula continued his campaign to quell the unrest throughout the island by targeting its source, Caratacus. And once the rebel king was forced to meet the Roman army in pitched battle, the governor defeated him. Caratacus then fled to the court of Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes, to seek refuge. Yet instead of aiding a fellow British ruler, the queen betrayed her tribal rival to the Romans, gaining much trust from her overlords but losing the respect of many of her people. Among those who had fallen out of favour with her was Venutius, her husband.

After Cartimandua divorced him in 57 CE, he attempted to seize her kingdom from her but was thwarted by the Roman forces that came to the aid of their client queen. Although he would later become the next great rebel leader, Venutius would not make another move until more than a decade later and remained in hiding during the Boudican rebellion.

“Female rulers were an absurd concept in Rome”

This painting depacts the massacre at Londinium, as Boudica’s army invaded and left no one alive

The road to rebellion55 and 54 BCEThe invasions of Britannia by Gaius Julius Caesar were the first violent conflicts between the Romans and the Britons. Though successful, no permanent Roman presence was created.

40 CEThe failed attempt of Caligula to invade Britannia. Instead of crossing the channel, the emperor ordered his soldiers to gather seashells and place them in their helmets.

43 CEThe Roman conquest of Britannia. While Aulus Plautius was the chief military commander, he patiently waited for Emperor Claudius to join him in the end and claim the overall victory.

48 CEGovernor Publius Ostorius Scapula suppressed a revolt carried out by a faction of the Iceni, angered over the unwarranted search of their homes and seizure of their weapons.

50 CEThe colonia at Camulodunum was established over the former capital of the Trinovantes. Native nobles were appointed to oversee the construction of the temple of Claudius.

GAIUS SUETONIUS PAULINUS

When Paulinus became the governor of Britannia in 58 CE, he had already proven himself to be a very skilled general. In 40 CE, he was the first Roman to lead an army over the Atlas

Mountains in North Africa.

GNAEUS JULIUS

AGRICOLAAgricola was only a military

tribune under Paulinus during the Boudican revolt. However,

his participation in the conflict was one of the major reasons

that his son-in-law, Tacitus, recorded the event.

PETILIUS CERIALIS

Cerialis was a young and impetuous commander when he first entered the historical

record as the legate of the ninth legion. Yet even after

his disastrous failure against Boudica, he managed to become

governor of Britannia in 71 CE.

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numerous rebels all over the island. numerous rebels all over the island. numerous rebels all over the island. numerous rebels all over the island. For several years after the conquest, For several years after the conquest, For several years after the conquest, For several years after the conquest, For several years after the conquest, For several years after the conquest, For several years after the conquest,

most insurgents became a part most insurgents became a part most insurgents became a part most insurgents became a part most insurgents became a part most insurgents became a part most insurgents became a part of the full-fledged guerrilla war of the full-fledged guerrilla war of the full-fledged guerrilla war of the full-fledged guerrilla war of the full-fledged guerrilla war of the full-fledged guerrilla war led by Caratacus, king of the led by Caratacus, king of the led by Caratacus, king of the led by Caratacus, king of the led by Caratacus, king of the Catuvellauni. After the decisive Catuvellauni. After the decisive Catuvellauni. After the decisive victories of the Romans over victories of the Romans over victories of the Romans over

his forces during the invasion, his forces during the invasion, his forces during the invasion, the king learned not to face the the king learned not to face the the king learned not to face the

legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful

guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.

her family. The Romans had her family. The Romans had only conquered Britannia less only conquered Britannia less only conquered Britannia less only conquered Britannia less than 20 years before, during than 20 years before, during the reign of Emperor Claudius the reign of Emperor Claudius the reign of Emperor Claudius

guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.Though the Iceni officially Though the Iceni officially Though the Iceni officially

became allies of the Roman became allies of the Roman became allies of the Roman Empire after the conquest, Empire after the conquest, Empire after the conquest, a faction of the Iceni also a faction of the Iceni also a faction of the Iceni also participated in a minor revolt participated in a minor revolt participated in a minor revolt participated in a minor revolt participated in a minor revolt in 48 CE, when the governor in 48 CE, when the governor in 48 CE, when the governor in 48 CE, when the governor in 48 CE, when the governor

Publius Ostorius Scapula Publius Ostorius Scapula Publius Ostorius Scapula Publius Ostorius Scapula enacted a draconian measure to enacted a draconian measure to enacted a draconian measure to enacted a draconian measure to

discourage Britons from joining discourage Britons from joining discourage Britons from joining Caratacus. The governor had his Caratacus. The governor had his Caratacus. The governor had his

concept in the patriarchal society concept in the patriarchal society concept in the patriarchal society of Rome. And the Romans would of Rome. And the Romans would of Rome. And the Romans would of Rome. And the Romans would of Rome. And the Romans would of Rome. And the Romans would make their feelings about this make their feelings about this make their feelings about this

legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead legions on the battlefield, instead using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the using his superior knowledge of the local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful local terrain to carry out successful

guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.guerrilla tactics on the foreign army.

Iceni gold coins

THE ROMANS

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Unable to join the forces of Caratacus or Venutius, many discontent Britons who still wished to make a stand against the empire continued to increase Boudica’s forces as she led them south into the lands of the Trinovantes. Like the Iceni, the Trinovantes harboured deep resentment towards the Romans for the past decade, and so became the second major tribe to join the revolt. While warriors from tribes all over Britannia rallied to the movement, none of the tribes contributed as much manpower as the Iceni and the Trinovantes. Both tribes were so invested in the cause that their warriors were followed by an enormous trail of carts driven by their families and loaded with their possessions. To restore their people’s honour, the Iceni and the Trinovantes were willing to risk everything.

Including the women, children and elderly who accompanied the march, the British horde may have increased to well over 100,000 people, with a core of warriors that was tens of thousands strong. Confident of overwhelming any meagre force the Romans sent against her, Boudica led her army towards their first target – the colonia of Camulodunum. The town was not only the most obvious choice for the rebels to attack, as it was in line to become the capital of the province, but its destruction was also the main reason the Trinovantes joined the revolt. It was imperative the colony was burned to the ground.

Camulodunum was once the capital of the Trinovantes until the Romans established it as a

LIFE UNDER THE ROMANSLife was difficult for the Britons under imperial rule, particularly during the first few decades after the conquest. Whereas before one king had ruled each tribe, both a governor and a procurator managed the new province of Britannia. The oppression enforced by these two officials was relentless – the Britons were mercilessly taxed to not only pay for the invasion of their own lands but also to cover the costs of extravagant building projects like the expansion of the colonia at Camulodunum. Additionally, attempts were made to weaken the military might of the Britons by forcing their young warriors to join the Roman army on foreign campaigns. The homes of some tribes were even ransacked and deprived of all weapons. However, several loyal client kings and aristocrats benefited greatly, for they gained access to large amounts of Mediterranean trade.

51 CECaratacus was defeated by Governor Scapula, ending his nine-year campaign of guerrilla warfare. He attempted to seek aid from the Brigantes, but was betrayed by Queen Cartimandua.

54 CENero became Emperor of Rome after the death of Claudius. A period of unrest then began among the anti-Roman Brigantes, who wished to exploit the change of power in the imperial capital.

57 CECartimandua divorced her husband, Venutius, and took his armour-bearer, Vellocatus, as her new consort. The queen was forced to request Roman aid to defeat the army of her ex-lover.

60 CEThe army of Governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus assaulted the druids on the island of Mona and slaughtered them. Afterwards, he was informed about the rebellion of Boudica in the east.

69 CEThe rebels of the Brigantes exploited the chaotic state of Rome during the ‘Year of Four Emperors’. When Venutius attacked, the Romans managed to save Cartimandua, but could not save her kingdom.

This early 20th-century illustration shows Romans commanded by Julius Caesar

invading Britain on the coast of Kent

ICENILocation: NorfolkLeader: Boudica

The tribe was possibly the Cenimagni recorded by Julius

Caesar when he invaded in 55 BCE. Except for the small-

scale revolt in 48 CE, the Iceni remained a loyal client kingdom

until the Boudican rebellion.

TRINOVANTESLocation: Essex, Suffolk and parts

of Greater LondonLeader: The Roman Governor

of BritanniaBy the time of the rebellion, the

Trinovantes had fully become part of the province of Britannia. The

tribe was enraged over the colonia at Camulodunum.

BRIGANTESLocation: Northern England and

the MidlandsLeader: Cartimandua

The Romans benefited from their alliance with Cartimandua, as the vast territory of her tribe

served as a buffer zone between the province and hostile tribes

further north.

Boudica Vs Rome

THE TRIBES

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Boudica Vs Rome

Boudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleBoudica’s battleThe Iceni queen crossed the country in pursuit of vengeance

■ Romans legions ■ britons

3 Destruction of Three CitiesBoudica and her army moved almost completely unopposed to devastate Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium, and slaughtered well over 30,000 Romans citizens. The queen then advanced down Watling Street to confront the Roman army as it returned from the west.

to the tribe were to be paid back in full immediately, or the funds would be taken by force. After enduring excessive taxation and then given such an ultimatum, the Trinovantes decided that their support for the empire had come to an end.

When the Roman citizens of Camulodunum became aware of the approaching horde led by Boudica, they desperately pleaded for help to the procurator in nearby Londinium. Since the governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign in the far west of the province, Decianus was the second highest-ranking Roman official in the vicinity. But the procurator was not a military commander and, therefore, was only able to send little more than 200 ill-equipped men to reinforce the small garrison already stationed in the town. Shortly afterwards, the financial official fled to Gaul in disgrace for his approval of the severe maltreatment of the Iceni

colonia for retired veterans in 50 CE. Arable land was also required for the farms of the soldiers, so it was taken from members of the tribe. As some of the strongest supporters of the Romans, the nobles of the Trinovantes were ‘rewarded’ even further for their loyalty with membership

into the priesthood of the Augustales. As priests dedicated to the worship of the

deified emperors, it was the duty of the Augustales to build the grand temple of

Claudius within their former capital. To pay for the temple and the construction required to transform Camulodunum into a colonia, the Trinovantes were given considerable loans by both the Roman state and the fabulously wealthy statesman Seneca. However, the top financial officer, or procurator,

of the province, Catus Decianus, had recently demanded that all loans given

Boudica, with her daughters, leading her army of rebels

1 The Call to ArmsAs Boudica gathered her people, warriors flocked from all over Britannia to join her rebellion against the Roman Empire. The queen then led her army south to combine with the substantial forces of the Trinovantes before advancing towards Camulodunum.

2 Legion IX AmbushedThe moment the commander of the ninth legion, Petillius Cerialis, was alerted about the uprising of Boudica, he immediately advanced his forces to save the undefended colonia of Camulodunum. However, his army was surrounded and destroyed in a clever ambush.

4 Battle of Watling StreetBoudica’s forces faced the Roman army in the Midlands, most likely near Manduessedum. The battlefield was chosen by Governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus to decrease the advantage of the queen’s vastly superior numbers.

ShieldThe curvature of the Roman shields helped to provide more protection and allowed the soldiers to create their famous tortoise formation.

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and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius

Cerialis, was already on its way to save the town before Boudica was able to reach it. In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, Cerialis rushed towards their presumed location. The Roman commander moved with too much haste, for he and his men were unable to detect the trap they had walked into before it was too late.

Suddenly, British warriors appeared from all directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the

2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 made it out of the devastating ambush alive

with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the safety of a small fort.

With no solid defences constructed yet to protect the growing colonia, the citizens of Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens of buildings were set on fire and thousands of people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed mob was killed. The Roman soldiers and the rest of the survivors barricaded themselves within the massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately outnumbered force was completely surrounded. Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the defenders held off the British horde for two long days. But, by the end of the second day, the besiegers finally broke through the remaining barricades and massacred all who remained within the despised temple.

Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum before they moved on towards the merchant town of Londinium. This time around, the citizens were aware of the advancing army, with ample time to allow them to gather their possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus planned to retreat from the city and leave it open to the British marauders.

In order to reach the town as quickly as possible, the governor had been forced to travel ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided

and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What and Trinovantes that led to the rebellion. What the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was the citizens of Camulodunum did not know was that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius that the ninth legion, led by Quintus Petillius

Cerialis, was already on its way to save the Cerialis, was already on its way to save the Cerialis, was already on its way to save the Cerialis, was already on its way to save the Cerialis, was already on its way to save the town before Boudica was able to reach it. town before Boudica was able to reach it. town before Boudica was able to reach it. town before Boudica was able to reach it. In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, In the hope of intercepting the rebel horde, Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed Cerialis rushed towards their presumed location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved location. The Roman commander moved with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his with too much haste, for he and his men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they men were unable to detect the trap they had walked into before it was too late. had walked into before it was too late. had walked into before it was too late. had walked into before it was too late. had walked into before it was too late.

Suddenly, British warriors appeared from all Suddenly, British warriors appeared from all Suddenly, British warriors appeared from all Suddenly, British warriors appeared from all Suddenly, British warriors appeared from all directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the directions and an onslaught ensued. Of the

2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 2,000 soldiers under his command, only 500 made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive made it out of the devastating ambush alive

with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course with Cerialis. Boudica continued on her course to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the to Camulodunum as the beaten legion fled to the safety of a small fort.safety of a small fort.safety of a small fort.safety of a small fort.safety of a small fort.safety of a small fort.safety of a small fort.

With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to With no solid defences constructed yet to protect the growing colonia, the citizens of protect the growing colonia, the citizens of protect the growing colonia, the citizens of protect the growing colonia, the citizens of protect the growing colonia, the citizens of protect the growing colonia, the citizens of Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led Camulodunum watched in horror as Boudica led her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered her army into the town, unopposed, and ordered the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens the destruction of everything in sight. Dozens of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of of buildings were set on fire and thousands of people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica people were slaughtered in the streets. Boudica did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her did not intend on taking prisoners, nor did her warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed warriors, so any Roman caught by the armed mob was killed. The Roman soldiers and the rest mob was killed. The Roman soldiers and the rest mob was killed. The Roman soldiers and the rest mob was killed. The Roman soldiers and the rest mob was killed. The Roman soldiers and the rest of the survivors barricaded themselves within the of the survivors barricaded themselves within the of the survivors barricaded themselves within the of the survivors barricaded themselves within the of the survivors barricaded themselves within the of the survivors barricaded themselves within the massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately massive temple of Claudius, but the desperately outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. outnumbered force was completely surrounded. Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek Amid the black smoke filling the sky and reek of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the of decaying flesh surrounding the edifice, the defenders held off the British horde for two long defenders held off the British horde for two long defenders held off the British horde for two long defenders held off the British horde for two long defenders held off the British horde for two long defenders held off the British horde for two long defenders held off the British horde for two long days. But, by the end of the second day, the days. But, by the end of the second day, the days. But, by the end of the second day, the days. But, by the end of the second day, the days. But, by the end of the second day, the days. But, by the end of the second day, the besiegers finally broke through the remaining besiegers finally broke through the remaining besiegers finally broke through the remaining besiegers finally broke through the remaining barricades and massacred all who remained barricades and massacred all who remained barricades and massacred all who remained barricades and massacred all who remained barricades and massacred all who remained barricades and massacred all who remained within the despised temple.within the despised temple.within the despised temple.within the despised temple.within the despised temple.within the despised temple.within the despised temple.

Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils Boudica and her men pillaged as many spoils as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum as they could find in the ruins of Camulodunum before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant before they moved on towards the merchant town of Londinium. This time around, the town of Londinium. This time around, the town of Londinium. This time around, the town of Londinium. This time around, the town of Londinium. This time around, the town of Londinium. This time around, the town of Londinium. This time around, the citizens were aware of the advancing army, citizens were aware of the advancing army, citizens were aware of the advancing army, citizens were aware of the advancing army, citizens were aware of the advancing army, citizens were aware of the advancing army, with ample time to allow them to gather their with ample time to allow them to gather their with ample time to allow them to gather their with ample time to allow them to gather their possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope possessions and abandon the town. Yet hope was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus was with the Romans, for Governor Paulinus had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to had arrived with a small contingent of cavalry to survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, survey the situation. Soon afterwards, however, optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the optimism gave way to feelings of horror as the citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus citizens of Londinium realized that Paulinus planned to retreat from the city and leave it open planned to retreat from the city and leave it open planned to retreat from the city and leave it open planned to retreat from the city and leave it open planned to retreat from the city and leave it open planned to retreat from the city and leave it open to the British marauders. to the British marauders. to the British marauders. to the British marauders.

In order to reach the town as quickly as In order to reach the town as quickly as In order to reach the town as quickly as In order to reach the town as quickly as In order to reach the town as quickly as In order to reach the town as quickly as possible, the governor had been forced to travel possible, the governor had been forced to travel possible, the governor had been forced to travel possible, the governor had been forced to travel possible, the governor had been forced to travel possible, the governor had been forced to travel possible, the governor had been forced to travel ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he ahead of the vast majority of his army. Since he was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided was hopelessly outnumbered, Paulinus decided

romans versus the celts

“The Iceni and the Trinovantes were willing

to risk everything”

SpearBoth Romans and Celts had spears and javelins, but the Roman ‘pilum’ had a much cleverer design. The javelin’s shank was designed to break on impact, meaning that it couldn’t be picked up and used by the enemy, and it could penetrate a shield so deeply that the enemy would be forced to discard it.

HelmetRoman legionary soldiers wore a bronze helmet called a ‘galea’. Although the Britons had developed helmets by the time of Boudica, many went unprotected.

Boudica Vs Rome

ArmourThe Celts wore little to no armour, and often painted themselves with blue woad dye before battle. Roman soldiers, on the other hand, were heavily armoured with metal plates and shin guards.

SwordThe Roman short sword was deadly when fighting at close quarters, while the longer Celtic sword was rendered almost useless in the crush.

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Boudica Vs Rome

to reunite with his forces and meet Boudica in a place of his choosing, where her superior numbers would not be such an advantage.

Londinium was almost deserted by the time that Boudica reached the town, and any Roman left behind was slain and imperial buildings were destroyed. Unspeakable atrocities were also perpetrated on some of the aristocratic women caught in the town, possibly in revenge for the crimes committed against Boudica. After the Britons mutilated their breasts and faces, these unfortunate Roman noblewomen were executed by impalement on spikes. Once the destruction of Londinium was complete and sufficient booty gathered, the horde moved on to sack another smaller town, Verulamium, before it headed down the road now known as Watling Street towards the ultimate confrontation with the Roman army under Paulinus. In her wake,

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Boudica left a path of destruction that may have included the deaths of as many as 70,000 Romans and Romanised Britons.

The legionaries that Paulinus was forced to leave behind when he made his rapid trek east were returning from the successful invasion of the island of Mona, off the coast of Wales. As a major religious centre of the druids, Mona was perceived as a huge threat to the Romans, for the Celtic priests had long been the supporters of nearly every uprising against imperial rule across Gaul and Britannia. Therefore, when Paulinus

became the governor of Britannia in 58 CE, he made it his top priority to crush all resistance on Mona and massacre all of the rebel priests found there. After their major triumph against the druids, the legionaries were highly motivated to eradicate the British insurgents of Boudica.

After the devastation of Verulamium, Boudica continued down Watling Street as Paulinus gathered his forces. With only Legion XX, some units from Legion XIV and auxiliaries, as well as the small remnant of Legion IX, Paulinus’ army only numbered about 10,000 soldiers. The

“Boudica led her army into the town and ordered the destruction of everything”

Battle of Watling Street

Legionary CounterattackAs the Britons neared, the Romans first launched their javelins into the horde of warriors before they charged forward in formation with their short swords drawn. In the confined space of the melee, the gladius was extremely deadly and efficient.

Superior Numbers vs TerrainThe Romans were positioned on top of a minor slope, with the mass of British warriors located in the fields below. With thick forests protecting their rear and flanks, the Romans waited for the Britons to make a frontal assault.

Chariot Assault vs TerrainThe chariots of the Britons were arrayed in front of the warrior bands and were the first to attack. Although the missiles of the mobile vehicles were deadly, the Romans withstood the heavy barrage until the British infantry began their advance.

Disastrous RetreatWith their larger swords unable to compare to the lethal gladius, many Britons were slain and the survivors were pushed back to the carts behind them. When the rebel army finally broke, the fleeing troops struggled to escape past their own barricade.

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Boudica Vs Rome

governor would have had slightly more men at his disposal, but the commander of Legion II failed to muster his troops and combine with the forces of Paulinus. Boudica, on the other hand, led a horde of hundreds of thousands that may have consisted of as many as 230,000. But Paulinus had two advantages – the training and discipline of his men, and the fact that they were all battle-ready soldiers.

When Boudica finally reached the Romans in the Midlands, they were most likely positioned near Manduessedum. Paulinus had chosen an ideal location to assemble his men, with a thick forest behind them and slopes protecting their flanks. The legionaries formed the centre of the army with auxiliary units on each side and cavalry contingents on the wings. The warrior bands of Boudica’s massive host gathered before the Roman legions, brandishing their swords and screaming war cries as Boudica rode along the front lines in a chariot with her daughters. As

her long hair flowed in the wind, the tall warrior queen raised her powerful voice above the tumult to give a rousing speech that reminded her troops of the cruelty and oppression they were fighting against. On the other side of the field, Paulinus also raised the confidence of his men through very direct words. He emphasised their extensive training, for them to see that their professionalism was a much greater asset than overwhelming numbers.

When the two forces collided at the battle of Watling Street, the chariots of the Britons wreaked havoc down the Roman lines. However, the large infantries of each army inevitably clashed and the superior equipment and martial skills of the Romans won the day. Furthermore, when the Britons broke and fled from the slaughter caused by the deadly Roman short swords, they were trapped by the semi-circle of carts and could not escape. In the end, everything in the path of the victorious

legionaries was slain, including women, children and the pack animals travelling with the Britons.

In defeat, Boudica drank poison, choosing to end her own life rather than fall into the hands of the Romans. Although ultimately unsuccessful at removing the Romans from Britannia, Boudica had her revenge with the deaths of thousands of her imperial oppressors. In fact, so much devastation had occurred that Emperor Nero nearly gave up on the fragile fledgling province, for it was more costly to maintain than financially beneficial. He would have done so if it were not for the courageous efforts of Paulinus. Afterwards, the governor went on to continue the savagery of the Romans, focusing his brutality primarily on the remaining Iceni and Trinovantes until they were sufficiently subdued. Boudica may have achieved the vengeance she sought, but the sad truth is that her people faced even more oppression after her death because of her actions against the empire.

Boudica and her army of rebels killed thousands before they were stopped by the RomansA depiction of Boudica, queen of the Iceni

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That the world’s first computer programmer was a Victorian woman is remarkable in itself, but that she was the daughter of one of literature’s most well-known poets adds such colour to the story it is difficult to

understand how it isn’t more widely known. Born in 1815, Ada Lovelace is not a name that draws the same reverence or even recognition as the likes of Alan Turing, Charles Babbage or Tim Berners-Lee – all undeniable innovators in technology. Yet she was the first to imagine the potential that modern computers held, and her predictions so accurately mirrored what later became the technological revolution that she is seen by many as a visionary, and even, by some, a prophet.

Understanding Ada’s ancestry and childhood is key to discovering how this unlikely historical figure played her part in the creation and proliferation of the computer. Her mother, Anne Isabella ‘Annabella’ Byron, didn’t want her daughter to grow up to be like her father, the eminent poet Lord Byron. He was tempestuous and prone to

mood swings – the true picture of a popular poet. Annabella was terrified Ada would inherit her father’s instabilities – a fear that would prove to be not entirely unfounded. As such, it was upon Annabella’s insistence that her daughter be brought up completely in control of herself, able to apply logic and certainly not preoccupied with sensation and emotions in the same way that her father was.

If flights of fancy were Annabella’s concern, there were signs early in Ada’s life that her determination had not suppressed all of these tendencies. At the age of 12, Ada was already developing a curious scientific mind, and became obsessed with the idea of learning to fly. In the hope of achieving this lofty ambition, Ada undertook extensive and methodical research into materials that could be used to make effective wings and examined birds and insects for further inspiration. She gathered her findings in a volume and named it ‘Flyology’. At first, Annabella encouraged her daughter’s enthusiasm for research and science, but as the obsession took hold, Ada was forced by her mother to abandon her project.

Ada’s mother forbade her from

seeing a portrait of her father, Lord Byron,

until she was 20 years old

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Written by Alex Hoskins

This unusual countess was one of the most influential figures in the history of technology, and one you have most likely never heard of

Ada Lovelace

HEROES VILLAINSHEROES

VILLAINS&

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Heroes & VillainsADA LOVELACE

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Heroes & VillainsADA LOVELACE

Five years after her obsessive research into flight, Ada met a man who would prove integral to her life, and in particular, her intellectual pursuits. Charles Babbage was a technological innovator and had created the Analytical Engine – the device generally considered to be the first computer. Babbage was 42, and yet despite the gap of more than 20 years between them, a friendship would grow that would not only provide them with comfort and intellectual stimulation, but provide the world with its most revolutionary invention yet – the computer.

Babbage had been working under commission from the British government on a machine called the Difference Engine, but the Analytical Engine was something far more complex. Where the Difference Engine was essentially a calculator, designed to eliminate inaccuracies by fallible humans, the Analytical Engine could perform more complex calculations, stretching far beyond numbers. This was the first time any such machine had been conceived, let alone designed.

Babbage couldn’t secure funding for his research into the new machine while the last project remained unfinished, but his determination to progress the Analytical Engine spurred him on, until he eventually found a sympathetic reception in Italy. In 1842, an Italian mathematician named Luigi Menabrea published an essay on the function of the machine. The text was in French, and Ada’s talent for languages coupled with her mathematical understanding made her the perfect candidate to translate the document for Babbage. Over the course of nine months, she did this, but while the memoir was valuable, it paled in comparison to Ada’s additions, which Babbage had suggested she should add in as she saw fit.

The notes that Ada made alongside the document were ground breaking. They exceeded the document she had translated, not just in length, but in depth and insight. One of the most quoted phrases, “the Analytical Engine weaves algebraic patterns just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves,” is a particularly feminine turn of

Annabella’s insistence on bringing up her daughter firmly rooted in logic was most likely inspired by her own interest in mathematics, and manifested itself in many, occasionally odd, ways. Part of Ada’s ‘education’ was to observe the task of lying still for hours on end, an activity designed to teach ‘self control’. In addition, Annabella was not a particularly maternal force, referring to Ada in letters as “it”, and leaving Ada in the care of her grandmother, Lady Judith Millbanke. However, Judith died when Ada was six years old, and from then on her guardianship was covered by various nannies, and later, tutors, who had been chosen and approved by Annabella.

Lord Byron, Ada’s father, had left two months after her birth for a life in Italy. His marriage to Annabella had ended abruptly, in a slew of scandalous rumours of affairs between Byron and a chorus girl, myriad financial troubles and rumoured violence and abuse. After travelling to Italy, where he stayed with Percy Bysshe and Mary Shelley, Byron’s final years were spent in Greece, where he had joined the forces fighting for independence from the Ottoman Empire. It was here that he died in 1824, when Ada was just eight years old – the two never met.

While the mathematical passions of her mother meant Ada had endured some unorthodox methods in her upbringing, it also meant that she received an extraordinary gift, rare for women in the 19th century – a comprehensive mathematical education. Ada’s tutors were a diverse group of academics, reading as a ‘who’s who’ of early to mid-19th century intellectuals. Among the most notable were William Frend, a renowned social reformer; William King, the family’s doctor, and perhaps most notably, Mary Somerville, a fellow female mathematician and astronomer.

26

EnemiesAugusta LeighIn 1841, Ada’s mother informed her that her half-cousin Medora Leigh was in fact her half-sister, following an incestuous affair between Lord Byron and his half-sister Augusta Leigh. Ada wrote: “I am not in the least astonished,” and blamed the affair on Augusta, writing: “I feel ‘she’ is more inherently wicked than ‘he’ ever was.”

Bruce CollierAda’s work has been the source of much contention, with many dismissing her part in the project. One historian, Bruce Collier, wrote: “It is no exaggeration to say that she [had] the most amazing delusions about her own talents, and a rather shallow understanding of both Charles Babbage and the Analytical Engine.”

“Ada became obsessed with the idea of learning to �y’”

Ada is believed to have written an algorithm for the Analytical Engine, designed by Babbage

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her mother. In the years following her death, incredible advances have been made in the fields of technology, and her prophecies have been realised. The authenticity of her authorship has been questioned, but her findings proved invaluable to Alan Turing’s work in the mid-20th century and were re-published at that time. Her legacy continues in the form of Ada Lovelace day, observed annually on 15 October. The day has the aim of raising awareness and interest for women in science. Ada was an unusual person in so many ways, and a remarkable one, and she continues to inspire those who feel that they must defy expectation to follow their passions.

Heroes & VillainsADA LOVELACE

phrase, strategically plucked from a much more lengthy, as well as technical, comparison of the machine to the Jacquard loom. In fact, most of the text is purely scientific, of a tone that wouldn’t be out of place in a modern-day programming textbook. For example, she wrote: “When the value on any variable is called into use, one of two consequences may be made to result.”

Ada also used the example of the complex numerical sequence known as Bernoulli numbers to prove the ability of the machine to calculate complex sequences from an original program. Detractors have used this against Lovelace, taking it as proof that the observations expressed in her notes weren’t truly hers, but simply a relaying of information given to her by Babbage. Indeed, Ada did not have a full understanding of calculus, but even if Bernoulli numbers were the suggestion of Babbage, the principle of her assumptions remained the same. It was the insight for potential in her translation of this document that earned Countess Lovelace the moniker the ‘World’s First Computer Programmer’.

Ada saw herself foremost as an “analyst and metaphysician,” but while her scientific prowess earned her a place in history, she lived a generally unremarkable domestic life. In 1835, two years after her first meeting with Babbage, Ada married William King, 8th Baron of King, later to become

the Earl of Lovelace. Ada and William would go on to have three children,

the first, named Byron, born in May 1836. Two siblings shortly

followed: Anne in September 1837 and Ralph in July 1839.

Ada suffered with health problems, both mentally and in the form of physical sicknesses, including cholera,

from which she recovered. Annabella held Ada, William

and the family in her financial thrall and as such, they lived on her

terms. This, combined with William’s sometimes controlling, even abusive, character,

was at odds with Ada’s friendly and fiercely independent nature. Affairs were rumoured, one in particular with the tutor to Ada’s children, William Benjamin Carpenter, but there is no evidence that she ever embarked on an extra-marital relationship.

Ada died of uterine cancer aged just 36, the same age as her father, and was out-lived by

Ockham Park, Surrey, in the 19th century, where Ada lived after she married William King

27

© A

lamy,

Getty

Imag

es

On Artificial

Intelligence, Ada concluded that

computers could never have original

thoughts

Hero or villain?

HEROISMHEROISMHer role in Babbage’s project has been contested, but there is no doubt that Ada is a role model for women even today

Despite her contribution to science, Ada was accused of several extra-marital a� airs and was addicted to gambling

Ada has been forgotten by many, but those in the � eld have coined her the world’s � rst ever computer programmer

VILLAINYVILLAINY

LEGACYLEGACY

AlliesCharles BabbageAda was introduced to the polymath when she was 17 and they began a lifelong friendship. Babbage called her an “enchantress of numbers that has thrown her magical spell around the most abstract of sciences and has grasped it with a force that few masculine intellects could have exerted over it.”

Mary SomervilleA fellow scientist and mathematician, Somerville mentored Ada when she was a child and the young countess developed a strong respect and affection for her. They continued their correspondence right up until Ada’s death in 1852, at the age of 36.

Kim & TooleFierce defenders of Ada’s legacy, they wrote: “[Ada] was certainly capable of writing the program herself given the proper formula; this is clear from her depth of understanding regarding the process of programming and from her improvements on Babbage’s programming notation.”

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he date was 22 January 1901 and the British Empire was the largest of any in human history, but the monarch who reigned over it would not live another day. As Queen Victoria lay dying in Osborne House on the Isle of Wight she looked back on a reign that

spanned over 63 years. She had seen her empire grow from a collection of scattered isles, separated by vast plains of lands and insurmountable oceans, to the greatest the world had known. It had reached over India, plucked its riches and mounted it as the glimmering jewel in her crown. It had butchered its way mercilessly across Africa at the cost of thousands of British corpses and countless natives who had tried in vain to stand in its way. It was powered forward both by Christian values and colonial greed, so as Victoria drew her last breath, she left a world forever transformed by the empire she had built.

When a young Princess Victoria ascended the steps of Westminster Abbey on her coronation day, few would have foreseen the mighty empire she would eventually rule over. The British public

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How a tiny island in the Atlantic Ocean came to own an empire so large that

the sun never set on itWritten by Frances White

were increasingly disenchanted with the monarchy and her grandfather, the mad king George III, had failed to protect British interest in the Americas, and her uncle George IV’s terrible relations with his wife and reckless spending had tarnished the monarchy’s prestige. At a mere 18 years and barely 150 centimetres (five feet) tall, Victoria hardly seemed a fitting patron for the vast ambitions of British expansion from the 17th century. But this blue-eyed, silvery-voiced lady possessed a stubborn will of iron and her reign would become the longest in British history. Her ascension marked not the death of the British Empire, but the new dawn of a kingdom so massive that none could ever hope to challenge it.

The world was changing as Victoria took her place on the throne. The tiny, scattered rural villages of England were being abandoned en masse and the cities were transforming into sprawling metropolises. Great towering concrete chimneys rose from the ground and the whirr of machines sounded across the country – the age of steam had arrived. The Industrial Revolution

VICTORIA'S

EMPIRE

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VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

Victoria served as monarch of the United Kingdom from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. At

63 years her reign is currently the longest in British history, and is associated with the Industrial Revolution, economic progress and most notably, the expansion of the British Empire to the largest domain of all time.

British, 1819-1901QUEEN VICTORIA

Brief Bio

“The British Empire had the

might, ingenuity and limitless

ambition to conquer the

world”

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

Empire had the might, ingenuity

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changed Britain from a quaint maritime nation into a manufacturing colossus. Railways and steamships brought the British overseas territory closer to the mother country, opening up opportunities for trade and commerce that were previously unfathomable.

It was Albert, Victoria’s beloved husband, who opened her and Britain’s eyes to the ideas that went on to shape her empire. Fascinated by mechanisms

and inventions, Albert organised The Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace – a temple to the ingenuity of the rapidly developing modern world. Inventions from around the world were displayed, but this was Britain’s show, first and foremost. The symbols of British might, which occupied half of the entire display space, served as clear examples of what the British Empire was capable of and fostered the ideas of national supremacy in the eyes of Victoria, the government and the majority of the British population. The Great Exhibition proved that far from the crumbling remains of a once-powerful nation, the British Empire had the might, ingenuity and limitless ambition to conquer the world.

The opportunity to pave the road for this empire arose in 1857 with the Indian Mutiny. India had

Egypt Finding itself in economic rot, Egypt sold half its stake in the Suez Canal to Britain. This prompted an eventual revolt and launched the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War. Britain won and took the country under its control. Egypt provided a vital trade route between Britain and India, cutting out the long journey around Africa.

Canada England captured Canada from France after the Seven Years’ War in 1763, also known as the French and Indian War. As well as adding a massive landmass to the British Empire’s bragging rights, Canada was a resource-rich country with a small population. Canada provided ample trade of timber, ores and furs.

South Africa The British gained control of the Cape

of Good Hope in the early-19th century and set up a colony. When South African Dutch settlers felt their territory was at risk, the two powers engaged in a series of military clashes known as the Boer

Wars, leading the Boers to submit to British rule. Serving as a stopping station on the

way to India, Southern Africa was also rich in gold and diamonds.

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

THE WORLD'S GREATEST EMPIRE

How much of the world Britannia

ruled by 1901

Born to Italian-Jewish parents, Disraeli was the first British prime minister with a Jewish heritage, though he was baptised as a Christian.

Disraeli pursued many early business ventures that failed, leaving him in crippling debt, leading to a nervous breakdown from which it took him years to recover.

He was mocked in Parliament when he made his maiden speech. Later he proclaimed that “the time will come when you will hear me.”

Disraeli was a notorious flatterer and when asked by a colleague how to deal with Queen Victoria, he replied: “First of all, remember she is a woman.”

He introduced much legislation that benefited the poor, such as the 1877 Artisans Dwelling Act that provided housing, as well as the Public Health Act the same year.

5 things you probably didn’t know about

Benjamin Disraeli

1

2

3

4

5

“The loss of the love of her life changed not only

herself as a person, but the fate of her empire”

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been ruled by a private entity – the East India Company – from 1757. The rebellion manifested the discontent felt by the Indian people for the blatant disrespect of their beliefs and customs. The company showed disregard for the Indian caste system and issued new cartridges greased with cow and pig fat that had to be opened with the mouth, highly offensive to Muslim and Hindu soldiers. These actions opened the eyes of the Indian people to the daily injustice they were being subjected to, and unrest snowballed into mass riots and an uprising. Although the mutiny was eventually quelled, the rebellion led to the dissolution of the company, the passing of power to the British state and the creation of what Victoria would call the jewel in her crown – the British Indian Empire.

Queen Victoria welcomed the country to her empire in a lavish ceremony, promising that Indian native customs and religions would be respected and that she would “draw a veil over the sad and bloody past.” She presented herself as a maternal figure and a crusader for peace, justice and honest government – ideals largely inspired by her husband. Albert had instilled in her mind the vision of King Arthur’s Camelot, an empire ruled not by tyranny but by justice, where the strong serve the weak, where good triumphs over evil, bringing not oppression and bloodshed, but trade, education and welfare. His influence on Victoria was immense and when on 14 December 1861 he died of suspected typhoid fever, the empire veered into an entirely new direction.

IndiaAfter largely being controlled by the East India Company, India became part of the British Empire after the Government of India Act in 1858. Known as the ‘jewel in the crown’, India was the most valuable piece of Britain’s empire, with lucrative trade from spices, jewels and textiles. The most important provision of India, though, was its manpower, which contributed massively

to Britain’s military might.

Australia British involvement in Australia began when Captain James Cook landed on the continent in the late-18th century. The number of Aboriginals living there quickly plummeted because of European diseases and loss of land. Australia became a penal colony and thousands of British convicts were transported there as punishment. When gold was discovered there, British immigrants raced to the sandy shores in search of their fortune.

TIMELINE OF CONQUEST

How Victoria’s British Empire became

the world’s biggest1838 PICAIRN ISLANDS

1842 HONG KONG

1848 INDIA

1853 TRUCIAL OMAN (TRINIDAD & TOBAGO)

1857 ADEN (YEMEN)

1862 BRITISH HONDURAS (BELIZE)

1868 BECHUANANLAND (BOTSWANA)

1874 FIJI

1878 CYPRUS

1878 SOUTH WEST AFRICA (NAMIBIA)

1881 NORTH BORNEO (SABAH)

1884 BASUTOLAND (LESOTHO)

1884 BRITISH SOMALILAND (SOMALILAND)

1884 PAPUA NEW GUINEA

1885 NIGERIA

1885 KENYA

1887 MALDIVE ISLANDS

1888 BRITISH EAST AFRICA (KENYA)

1888 BRUNEI

1888 COOK ISLANDS (NZ ASSOC)

1888 GAMBIA

1888 SARAWAK (MALAYSIA)

1889 RHODESIA (ZIMBABWE)

1889 TRINIDAD (TRINIDAD & TOBAGO)

1890 TANGANYIKA (TANZANIA)

1891 MALAWI

1894 UGANDA

1898 SUDAN

1899 KUWAIT

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

When Albert drew his last breath in the blue room at Windsor Castle the queen was inconsolable; the loss of the love of her life changed not only herself as a person, but the fate of her empire. As she donned the mourning clothes she would wear until her own death, she drew a veil over Albert’s vision and pursued a different path for her kingdom – one of world domination.

An emerging figure in Parliament would come to foster her views – Benjamin Disraeli. The ambitious and rebellious leader of the Conservatives was led by a passion for imperial power and glory. Inspired by tales of imperial adventures, Disraeli believed Britain should pursue an empire of power and prestige. His most direct political opponent represented everything Albert dreamed the empire

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could be. William Gladstone, the leader of the Liberals, thought the empire should serve a high moral purpose, to follow not a path of conquest but one of commerce, sharing their moral vision with the rest of the world.

These two fiery and driven men fought over these opposing visions in Parliament as Victoria continued to mourn. Without Albert she felt incompetent and unable to face the immense duty that her role dictated. With her strong conservative views she found Gladstone and his liberal reforms dangerous and unpredictable. Disraeli, suave, coy and dripping with forthright confidence, enchanted the lonely queen. With his constant flattery and sharp wit, Disraeli reignited her interest in politics and captivated her, as Albert had done so

previously, with his vision of just how mighty the empire could be. However, Gladstone’s liberal vision and Albert’s quest for Camelot had not

completely faded. The British people, led by strong Protestant beliefs Victoria herself

had instilled in them, felt it was Britain’s role – their duty even – to

civilise people around the world. They believed the British cause was to export not only trade, but also gospel values of morality and justice.

It was in pursuit of this lofty goal that many missionaries

Emerging from humble beginnings, the East India Company began as a simple enterprise of London businessmen who wanted to make money from importing spices. The company was

granted a royal charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1600, and in 1601 James Lancaster led its first voyage. The company set up trade outposts in Indian settlements that slowly developed into commercial towns. Steadily increasing its territory, the company claimed vital trading ports from Aden to Penang. As its control extended, the company became the most powerful private

company in history, with its own army established by Robert

Clive, the first British governor of Bengal. With

its great military power behind it, the

company controlled India with a combination of direct rule and alliances with Indian princes. The East India Company eventually

accounted for half the world’s trade and

specialised in cotton, silk, tea and opium.

WHAT WAS THE EAST INDIA COMPANY?

32

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

A satirical cartoon from 1876 poking fun at the relationship between Queen Victoria and Benjamin Disraeli

The Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders before the 1899 Battle of Modder River

during the Second Boer War

Lancaster was an Elizabethan trader

and privateer

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VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

turned their attention to Africa. Little was known of the ‘Dark Continent’, but the common perception was that it was a place of pagan worship ravaged by tribal wars. One missionary in particular would capture the attention of the British nation. Tall, handsome and heroic, David Livingstone embodied everything the British believed their nation to represent. A medical missionary, Livingstone’s daring adventures around the continent were followed by a captivated British public. Fighting vicious beasts, battling through dense jungles and suffering a multitude of illnesses, Livingstone was the heroic face of the empire’s Christian ideals.

Livingstone’s horrific confrontation with African chain gangs was to drive the British cause of expansion. The slavery rife in Africa was abhorrent to Livingstone and the British public, as the practice had been abolished across the empire in 1833. The queen and government united behind Livingstone’s quest to find a suitable trade route, hoping that by doing so, the African people would find ways to make a living that wasn’t built on the backs of slaves. Livingstone’s journey was a failure and he returned to scathing criticism – something the

imperialist Disraeli leapt on with glee. His flattery of Victoria had completely won her over and the monarchy and government became united in pursuit of one goal – the expansion of the empire.

The perfect opportunity to begin this new empire emerged as another nation struggled to survive. The Egyptian ruler, Isma’il Pasha, was confronted with crippling debts after reckless spending on lavish ceremonies and a costly war with Ethiopia. In an act of desperation he made an offer to sell to the British Egypt’s shares in the Suez Canal. The canal was more than a mere trading port; it opened up a short route to India across Egypt and down the Red Sea, cutting out the lengthy journey around Africa. The Egyptian ruler’s offer would give the British controlling influence over the jugular of the empire, so Disraeli urged Victoria to accept. She immediately did and the Suez Canal fell into British hands.

With control of India, Britain was already the most powerful nation on Earth and three-quarters of the world’s trade was transported in British ships, but this control was being threatened. The Russian Empire had been steadily expanding east

A British marketing poster promoting the Suez Canal – the waterway was an important

factor in the growth of the empire

“The Industrial Revolution changed Britain from a quaint maritime nation into a

manufacturing giant”

DOMINANCE OF THE SEAS Britain employed a ‘two-power standard’ in 1889 which called for the Royal Navy to maintain a force at least equal to the

combined strength of the next two largest navies in the world. This policy ensured British dominance of the seas with a string of naval bases encompassing the whole world. The pure size and strength of the navy served its purpose – deterring any would be competitors and confirming its position as ruler of the waves.

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Britain was the first nation to harness the power of steam and the first to undergo an industrial revolution. This resulted in

mass production of low-cost goods to trade around the world. It also gave Britain’s military an array of resources like rifles, steamships and trains, equipping it to defeat any possible enemies. Medical advances also allowed British explorers to penetrate remote areas without fear of tropical diseases.

THE QUEST TO SPREAD DEMOCRACY Land grabbing aside, the British Empire was led by a strong Protestant desire to improve the world. Britain saw itself as

an agent of civilisation – one they wanted to spread worldwide, bringing peace, order and stability. This belief that they were doing genuine good led men like David Livingstone to travel to Africa to spread the word of God, and with it, the British Empire.

TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THE COMPETITIONAs major powers of the world such as Spain, France, the Netherlands and the Ottomans were losing power, the British

began to peak in strength. Britain was able to take advantage of the European wars that had weakened other nations as it enjoyed a period of relative peace, allowing uninterrupted expansion of its empire. Any threats that did emerge, such as Russia, just gave Britain new zeal to cement its powerful hold on the world.

STRONG LEADERSHIPBritain was ruled by a single monarch throughout most of the 19th century – Queen Victoria. The record-breaking length of her reign brought

a sense of stability and contributed to the unconquerable notion of the British Empire. Although Victoria did involve herself in government, her role was symbolic rather than one of direct power, which ensured stability of British politics. While other nations were dealing with socialist movements, Britain enjoyed a long period of relative domestic peace.

FIVE REASONS THE BRITISH EMPIRE CAME

TO RULE THE WORD

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16,000 British reinforcements to prise the Zulus’ independence from their grip. Expecting to return to a wave of praise for their daring exploits, the victorious army were surprised to discover that British opinions were changing once again.

Gladstone, the “half-mad firebrand”, as Victoria dubbed him, preached his outraged opinions about the mass slaughter of Zulus and rampant destruction of their homes. Victoria was outraged but the public sided with Gladstone and, much to the queen’s dismay, the power of the government switched hands once more. Liberal leader or not, all of Europe’s attention was firmly fixed on Africa as nations began a scramble to establish colonies there. In amongst this mad rush to establish new territory by European powers, it was arguably one man’s actions that would determine the ultimate fate of Victoria’s empire.

Led by Muhammad Ahmed, revolution was tearing through the Sudan as tribes rose against their corrupt rulers. As this holy war drew uncomfortably close to the Suez Canal, Victoria urged Gladstone to utilise the British troops

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

stationed there to defend it. The liberal leader refused. In order to buy time he sent one man, General Charles Gordon, to secure the evacuation of loyal civilians and soldiers.

Like Livingstone, Gordon was a national hero. He was brave, dashing, popular and his decorated military career had painted him in the British public’s eyes as a gleaming knight of old. Despite these qualities Gordon was also wild and unpredictable. When he reached the Sudan he was horrified by the slavery rife in the region and decided to face the Mahdi in battle. With limited forces, Gordon soon found himself besieged in the city of Khartoum. His appeals for aid, to the adoring public’s outrage, fell on deaf ears in the government. It took more than eight months of public fury to finally force Gladstone’s hand, but it was too late – Gordon, the nation’s hero of Christianity, was dead.

In an instance the liberal vision was shattered, Gladstone was voted out and his moral influence departed with him. The renewed crusading spirit of British imperialism found its poster boy in a

and south and was getting uncomfortably close to Victoria’s prized jewel – India. The Middle East was largely controlled by the Turks, but they were busy dealing with violent rebellions. The Turkish treatment of their Christian subjects was shocking and atrocious, but as Russia backed the rebels the British had no option but to support the Turks. The British public, to whom Russia stood for everything Britain opposed – ignorance, slavery and subjugation – largely supported this choice. Facing the prospect of imminent war with the strongest nation on the planet, Russia agreed to peace talks and thanks in part to the charisma and negotiation skills of Disraeli, agreed to stop their advance on the Middle East.

Imperial spirit rushed through the public as the might of British muscle flexed and proved itself again. As the empire continued its steady expansion across the continent it came face to face with the most powerful African nation – the Zulus. The British, with a bloated ego, underestimated the strength of their spear-wielding enemies and suffered a crushing initial defeat. In the end it took

Sturdy frame The skeleton of the ship, a strong frame was of paramount importance. The ironclad battleships of the 1870s and ‘80s were replaced by pre-dreadnought ships, which were built from tough steel and reinforced with hardened steel armour.

Steaming aheadSteam power emerged in the 1830s as an auxiliary propulsion system. The first purpose-built steam battleship was Le Napoléon of France with a speed of 12 knots (23km/h / 14mph) regardless of wind direction. Soon the United Kingdom was rapidly producing steam battleships to challenge France’s strength, building 18 new ships and

converting 41 to steam power.

Propulsion Powered by two triple expansion steam engines, the HMS Prince George was capable of a top speed of 16 knots (30km/h / 18mph). The engines were powered by eight coal-fired cylindrical boilers, which produced an impressive speed, but at the cost of high fuel consumption.

Firepower Pre-dreadnoughts carried a variety of guns for different purposes. There were four heavy slow-firing guns, which were difficult to operate but capable of penetrating the armour of enemy ships. The HMS Prince George also carried a secondary

battery of 12 quick-firing .40-calibre guns.

Steel armourThe ship was reinforced with 22.9cm (9in) of Harvey armour, which provided it with equal protection for less weight. As a result, the pre-dreadnought ships benefited from a lighter belt than any previous battleships, without any loss in protection. The battery, conning tower and deck

were also protected by thick steel.

A willing crew The HMS Prince George carried a crew of 672 officers and enlisted men. This was less than previous ships of the line, which required between 800 and 900 men to operate effectively.

The anatomy of the HMS Prince GeorgeHOW BRITANNIA RULED THE

WAVES

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man who would lead the empire down a dark and dangerous path. Moving from England to Africa to work on a cotton farm, Cecil John Rhodes had become outrageously wealthy from the diamond rush, but he wanted more – the whole of Africa. Driven by greed and lust for power, Rhodes wished to create a British colony across Africa, not for the betterment of its people or to spread Christian values, but for profit and business.

Using the tenacity and cunning that had elevated him to success, Rhodes tricked and butchered

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE

his way across the continent with the British government backing him every bloody step of the way. Rhodes made it his purpose to make the world English and famously said: “If there be a God, I think that what he would like me to do is paint as much of the map of Africa British Red as possible.” His path of colonial greed led Britain head-first into a conflict now known as the Boer Wars.

Gold had been found in Transvaal in northern South Africa and Rhodes worried that this would prompt an alliance with the Germans, thus cutting

RIGHT 1892 caricature of Cecil Rhodes, after he announced plans for a telegraph line and railroad from Cape Town to Cairo

Dr Livingstone, I presume?

Paintings of Victoria in her youth are a world away from the traditional austere depiction of her

The Great Exhibition of 1851 boosted Britain’s national confidence

GermanyFrom 1850 onward, Germany began to industrialise at an astonishing rate, transforming from a rural nation to

a heavily urban one. In the space of a decade Germany’s navy grew massively

and became the only one able to challenge the British. Although the German Empire of the late-19th century consisted of only a few small colonies, the newly unified state slowly moved toward colonial expansion in Asia and the Pacific. As Wilhelm II rose to power, his aggressive policies in achieving a ‘place in the sun’ similar to Britain was one of the factors that would lead to WWI.

Russia As England expanded its territory, so did Russia. For a hundred years Russia expanded east and south, narrowing

the gap between the British and Russian Empires in Central Asia. Britain

soon became obsessed with protecting India which was a rich source of goods and manpower. The competition for dominance of the states that separated them – Iran, Afghanistan and Tibet – became commonly known as The Great Game. The looming, but unlikely, threat of Russia’s attack led Britain into largely unnecessary military involvement in Afghanistan and Tibet.

Three countries that were battling with Britain for territory MAIN COMPETITORS

FranceBritain’s age-old rival France was still licking its wounds after the loss of most of its imperial colonies in

the early part of the 19th century. However, French leaders began a

mission to restore its prestige in 1850, seeking to claim land in North and West Africa as well as in Southeast Asia. After the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, it still continued with zeal to expand its empire, acquiring land in China and all over Africa. Unlike most of its rivals, France would continue expanding after WWI, well into the 1930s.

“They believed the British cause was to export not only trade, but also gospel values

of morality and justice”

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off his route to the north of the continent. Rhodes planned an uprising to overthrow the Boer leaders, but it did not go as planned – far from the naked, spear-wielding foes he had previously conquered, the Boers had guns, and they fought back hard with skill and courage.

Outrage tore across Europe against what was seen as an unprovoked attack on an independent state, but not in Britain. Fully convinced of their noble mission, the British people believed the Boers to be vicious and uncompromising. More soldiers poured into the region into a war they believed would be short and glorious, but as more British bodies piled up – Victoria’s own grandson among them – British confidence in their own unconquerable might began to wane.

As British reinforcements continued to flood into the territory the tide slowly began to turn. Rhodes had managed to squeeze a win from the jaws of defeat and the Boer territories became British colonies. The empire had grown, but at a cost. Rhodes’ controversial actions during the war – including forming what would come to be known

as the first concentration camps – had been a step too far for the British public. What had begun as a noble quest of Christianity had transformed into a greedy and brutal scramble for power. When Rhodes died his merciless version of imperialism was buried with him in the dry African dirt.

When Victoria passed away she was finally rid of the black mourning clothes she had worn for 40 years and was dressed entirely in white. Spring flowers were scattered around her body and her wedding veil was placed on her head as she prepared to reunite with the dearest love of her life. She was, however, leaving another behind; the Empire she had mothered now stretched across the globe with large parts of maps of the word coloured in the pink that showed British rule. As the sun set on the quiet room in which she lay in Osborne House, it was rising on the bustling spice markets of India, and soon the vast plains of British land in Africa would be bathed in warm golden light. Victoria had died, but the legacy she left behind expanded over the face of the entire planet. The cogs of the British Empire whirred steadily on.

VICTORIA’S EMPIRE General Gordon organised a year-long defence of Sudan but a relief force arrived two days

after the city had fallen and he had been killed

“The monarchy and government became united in pursuit of one goal – the expansion

of the empire”

7 EYE-WATERINGEMPIRE FACTS

113ships in the Royal Navy

23% of the world’s surface was ruled by Britain

63 21days&years

the length of Victoria’s reign

13.01 millionsquare miles of land

belonged to the empire

113113113113113113113113113113113113113ships in the Royal Navy 113

ships in the Royal Navy 113113113

ships in the Royal Navy 113113113113113113

ships in the Royal Navy 113

458 millionpeople ruled over

165,000convicts sent to Australia

7,010,000total goods shipped by Britain in

one year (1881)

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© A

lamy

DIAN FOSSEYTop 5 facts

THE FEARLESS ZOOLOGIST WHO FOUGHT FOR GORILLAS IN THE MIST

Known for her pioneering work in studying the endangered gorillas of the Rwandan mountain

forest, Fossey was a renowned zoologist. Fossey recorded her experiences with the gorillas in her book Gorillas In The Mist, which was later turned into a film. In 1985, aged 53, Fossey was found bludgeoned to death in her cabin in the Rwandan mountains. Her mysterious murder remains unsolved.

Nationality: AmericanBorn: 16 January 1932

Died: 26 December 1985

DIAN FOSSEY

Brief Bio

02 Her camp drove students away

Fossey had to overcome a lot of obstacles in her studies of the Rwandan gorillas, not least of all the camp itself. Along with the issues that come from living in a remote location, many of the students that travelled to help with her studies soon left due to the extreme coldness and darkness of the camp.

03 Her career did not start smoothly

When Fossey sought out palaeontologist Louis Leakey at his dig site, he mistook her for a tourist. While walking around the site she tripped and broke her ankle along with a newly excavated fossil. Despite this, she continued to the mountains of Congo, where she glimpsed her first mountain gorilla.

04 She battled constantly with poachers

During one of Fossey’s trips to America, she placed an up-and-coming research student, Alan Goodall, in charge of her camp. During this time he shot two poachers in their legs, and in revenge the poachers killed six mountain gorillas. This ongoing war with the poachers is regarded by some to have caused Fossey’s murder.

05 She’s attracted controversy

Despite her pioneering work, Fossey was rumoured to have a dark side. It was reported she would capture those she suspected of poaching, strip them and beat them with nettles. In 2002, The Wall Street Journal dubbed her “a racist alcoholic who regarded her gorillas as better than the African people who lived around them.”

37

01 SHE RISKED EVERYTHING TO GO TO AFRICA Fossey had a secure job working as director of the Kosair Crippled Children’s Hospital occupational therapy department before her trip. However, in order to embark on her first visit to Africa, she had to spend her entire life savings, as well as taking out a hefty bank loan.

Animals & Man

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Egypt was in turmoil. In the year 81 BCE Ptolemy IX, the pharaoh who had dared to melt down the gold coffin of Alexander the Great was dead. A series of bloody and violent family feuds had robbed his dynasty

of any legitimate male heirs so his popular and beloved daughter, Bernice III became queen. Following the family tradition, she married her half-brother, Plotemy XI, but just 19 days after the ceremony, the groom had his new bride murdered and claimed the throne as his own. The citizens of Alexandria were furious and an angry mob quickly seized the new pharaoh and lynched him. Egypt was leaderless and seemingly out of control.

As the commander of the army and the personification of god on Earth, a pharaoh’s presence was essential to prevent mass unrest in Egypt and anyone, absolutely anyone, was better than no pharaoh at all. So the throne was offered to the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX, and Ptolemy XII stepped forward to claim it. A notorious womanizer with a fondness for drink and excess, he was hardly the shining beacon the struggling country needed to guide it through the dark pit it had fallen into. A nickname for the illegitimate pharaoh quickly became popular – Nothos, or ‘the bastard.’ Ptolemy XII had at least five legitimate

children, and Cleopatra VII was the second oldest after her sister, Berenice IV.

The young princess was clever and quick-witted, with an eager and curious mind driven by a near-insatiable thirst for knowledge. She easily excelled at her studies and even her esteemed scholars were amazed by her aptitude for languages, readily conversing with any foreign visitors whether they were Ethiopians, Hebrews, Troglodytes, Arabs, Syrians, Medes or Parthians. While she surrounded herself with the wonders of the academic world in the riches and luxury of the royal residence, outside her palace window the real one was being stretched at the seams, in danger of being ripped apart.

Pharaoh Ptolemy XII was in a troublesome position. His father had promised Egypt to Rome, a promise the Roman Senate had chosen not to act on – not yet, at least. Still, Ptolemy XII was smart enough to understand that to keep the Romans happy was to ensure Egypt’s survival. He sent masses of money and bribes to Julius Caesar (at that time one of Rome’s most important figures), which secured the Romans’ support, but dammed him in the eyes of his tax-burdened citizens. In 58 BCE he was forced into exile, taking his talented younger daughter with him. When he finally

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CLEOPATRAHow the middle daughter of a despised pharaoh fought, schemed and seduced

her way into becoming the most famous Egyptian ruler of all

Written by Frances White

THE RUTHLESS

RISE TO POWER OF

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“Cleopatra pushed her child brother-husband

into the background and established herself as

sole monarch of the country”

CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

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CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

returned three years later, with the backing of a Roman army courtesy of the statesman Aulus Gabinius, he discovered his oldest daughter Berenice sitting on the throne. Displaying the brutal and uncompromising ferocity that ran through his entire family he had his daughter summarily executed, reclaimed the throne and ruled an uneasy Egypt until his death in 51 BCE. The crown and all the debts he had amassed became the property of his oldest surviving daughter, Cleopatra.

The 18-year-old was not – as some expected – a naïve wide-eyed child torn from her books to rule a kingdom on the brink of war. She had served as consort to her father for the final few years of his reign and all her education since birth had been designed to mould her into a capable queen. Queen, that was; not king, not pharaoh. Cleopatra was cursed by the requirement of all Egyptian queens to serve alongside a dominant male co-ruler and so found herself burdened with the task of being a subordinate co-regent to her ten-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII.

Faced with a regency council full of ambitious men who ruled in her brother’s stead and led by her own ruthless, impatient and intelligent

nature, Cleopatra pushed her brother-husband into the background and established herself as sole monarch of the country. This was dangerous; the Alexandrian courtiers swarmed over the young, impressionable king, filling his head with whispers of sole rule and the dangers of his older sister. If Cleopatra had been more patient and attentive, she could perhaps have trained a capable and obedient

co-ruler in him, one who would have aided her rule, instead of bringing it crashing

down. But that was simply not the Ptolemy way, and she was

a Ptolemy in every sense of the word – daring, ambitious

and deadly. She dropped her brother’s image from coins and erased his name from official documents. With her skill, drive and

cunning she was perfect for rule; in her mind she

deserved Egypt and wasn’t prepared to share it. The early years of her reign

would be testing, as not only was the country still struggling under the

father’s debts, but years of infrequent floods of the Nile had led to widespread famine. Over her shoulder Cleopatra could feel the ever-looming and rapidly expanding threat of Rome, and with a weak Egyptian army, her fertile land was ripe for the picking. As hungry peasants flooded into the

“With her popularity and

reputation already in tatters, the disgraced

queen fled from the city of her

birth”

Ptolemy XIII Theos PhilopatorMACEDONIAN, 62-47 BCE How did they get together? The marriage between Ptolemy and his sister was arranged, as was the tradition with Egyptian royalty. Was it true love? Considering their joint rule erupted into a brutal civil war, we can assume there was little love lost between the siblings. There is no evidence they consummated their marriage. How did it end? Ptolemy was forced to flee Alexandria when the forces of Caesar and Cleopatra claimed victory. He reportedly drowned attempting to cross the Nile.

Julius Caesar ROMAN, 100-44 BCE How did they get together? Cleopatra and her brother both needed Caesar’s support. Cleopatra met with Caesar before their scheduled meeting and managed to sway his vote. Her methods can be left to the imagination. Was it true love? Although the union was initially spawned from mutual political gain and the two were forbidden by Roman law to marry, Cleopatra seemed to stay loyal to Caesar and had his child. How did it end? This love affair was cut short when Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March.

Mark Antony ROMAN, 83-30 BCE How did they get together? Antony summoned Cleopatra to see if she would hold true in her promised support during the war against the Parthians. She reportedly charmed him during this meeting, perhaps much the same way she had Caesar. Was it true love? Although it may have been borne out of political agendas, the two had three children together, and Antony risked everything to be with his Egyptian queen. How did it end? After the ill-fated Battle of Actium, Antony committed suicide upon mistakenly hearing Cleopatra was dead, and she quickly followed suit.

A HUSBAND & TWO LOVERSA HUSBAND & TWO LOVERSA HUSBAND & TWO LOVERS

by her own ruthless, impatient and intelligent

Ptolemy XIII Theos PhilopatorPtolemy XIII Theos PhilopatorPtolemy XIII

MACEDONIAN, 62-47 BCE MACEDONIAN, 62-47 BCE How did thThe marriage between Ptolemy and his sister was arranged, as was the tradition with Egyptian royalty. Was it true love? Considering their joint rule erupted into a brutal civil war, we can assume there was little love lost between the siblings. There is no evidence they consummated their marriage. How did it end? Ptolemy was forced to flee Alexandria when the forces of Caesar and Cleopatra claimed victory. He reportedly drowned attempting to cross the Nile.

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CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

WAS SHE REALLY A BEAUTY?

The popular image of Cleopatra is the stunning vision seen in paintings and films, especially the 1963 film starring Liz Taylor with her strong but delicate features. The difficulty with accessing the true appearance of the Egyptian queen comes from the fact that the Roman Emperor Augustus ordered all images of her to be destroyed. The few pieces that were spared are difficult to link directly to Cleopatra. Her own ancestry is also in doubt due to there being no concrete record of who her mother or grandmother were.

Historians know she was part Greek, which indicates she had an olive complexion with dark hair. The coins and few statues discovered present a thick neck, with a hooked nose and prominent chin, she was also likely to suffer from bad teeth like everyone else of her time. In Ancient Egypt being seen as male was a sign of strength, and the strong nose directly linked her with Ptolemy VIII, so it’s reasonable to assume Cleopatra may have chosen to emphasise these traits. It is perhaps better to view Cleopatra as not one who possessed conventional beauty, but instead captivated with charm, intelligence and wit.

CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

WAS SHE REALLY A BEAUTY?

The popular image of Cleopatra is the stunning vision seen in paintings and films, especially the 1963 film starring Liz Taylor with her strong but delicate features. The difficulty with accessing the true appearance of the Egyptian queen comes from the fact that the Roman Emperor Augustus ordered all images of her to be destroyed. The few pieces that were spared are difficult to link directly to Cleopatra. Her own ancestry is also in doubt due to there being no concrete record of who her

Historians know she was part Greek, which indicates she had an olive complexion with dark hair. The coins and few statues discovered present a thick neck, with a hooked nose and prominent chin, she was also likely to suffer from bad teeth like everyone else of her time. In Ancient Egypt being seen as male was a sign of strength, and the strong nose directly linked her with Ptolemy VIII, so it’s reasonable to assume Cleopatra may have chosen to emphasise these traits. It is perhaps better to view Cleopatra as not one who possessed conventional beauty, but instead captivated with charm,

A depiction of Caesar leading Cleopatra onto the Egyptian throne

Cleopatra also struck up a fateful romance

with Mark Antony

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CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

cities, Cleopatra’s popularity plummeted, and her repeated decisions that seemed designed to please Rome at Egypt’s expense reminded the bitter population of her despised father.

In the middle of this political turmoil Cleopatra found herself facing a familiar rival. Her brother was back and, aided by his many guardians and regents, was now a vicious and ruthless king who was not afraid to wipe her from the land and from history. He completely erased his sister’s name from all official documents and backdated his monarchy, claiming sole rule since his father’s death. With her popularity and reputation already in tatters, the disgraced queen fled from the city of her birth before an angry mob could storm the palace and inflict upon her the same grisly fate as so many of her greedy and ill-fated predecessors.

Having lost not only the support of her people but also the land she so strongly believed was hers to rule, Cleopatra escaped to Syria with a small band of loyal supporters. Fuelled by outrage at her brother, and even more so at the advisors who had crafted him into a vicious enemy, Cleopatra did not sink into depression or abandon her ambitions, but set about building the army she would need to reclaim her throne. As the female pharaoh amassed her forces in Syria, her young brother, barely 13 years old, became distracted by the ever-pressing Roman civil war. After a humiliating defeat to Caesar in Pharsalus, the Roman military leader Pompey the Great fled to the one place he was assured he could find refuge; his old ally, Egypt.

With his wife and children watching nervously from afar Pompey disembarked his grand ship to board a small fishing boat to the shore. The Egyptian boy pharaoh, Ptolemy, sat on the shore in a throne fashioned specifically for the occasion. He watched Pompey closely, his face guarded and unreadable, but the men around him threw their arms open and, with wide smiles, cried, “Hail, commander!” It was not until the ship reached the shore that Pompey realised the murderous web in which he was entangled. Before he could cry out he was ran through with a sword and stabbed over and over again in the back. While the once-great consul was decapitated and his mutilated corpse thrown into the sea, Ptolemy did not even rise from his throne. The entire ceremony had been a ruse; a rival of Caesar’s was more valuable dead than alive.

When Caesar arrived in the harbour of Alexandria four days later, he was

presented with the head of his rival. However, in mere moments Ptolemy’s advisors realised their mistake, for the Roman general was completely and utterly appalled. He wept loudly and openly before leading his forces to the royal palace in Alexandria. As he observed the local resentment and civil war threatening to break the land in two he made a decision – he needed the wealth that Alexandrian taxes would give him and the only way of increasing taxes was to establish stability in the city; the sibling rivalry had to end. He summoned Cleopatra and Ptolemy to appear before him.

This was easy for Ptolemy who swiftly journeyed to Alexandria, but Cleopatra would

have to use all her cunning just to make it into the city alive. With the harbour

blocked by her brother’s ships, she slipped away from her troops

and travelled in a small boat along the coast in the dead of night. Her journey had been completely and utterly unfitting for a pharaoh of Egypt, a Ptolemy queen; but victory

demanded sacrifice and she was confident the streets and

waters she was smuggled down would soon be hers again. It had

been a challenge to make it into the palace district, but the real night’s work

was about to begin – she was about to go face to face with arguably the most powerful man in the known world.

Her brother would bend over backwards, slay Caesar’s enemies and kiss his feet for his support, but he was quick to panic, eager to please and terrified of angering Rome. Her brother was a fool. Caesar needed Egypt as much as Egypt needed Rome and she would use that fact to her advantage. She would not wait to bow and scrape and plead her case alongside a child, she was going to speak to the Roman general that night. She sneaked into the palace and found her way into Caesar’s private chamber.

She was smuggled in a rugThe image of a dishevelled and flushed Cleopatra being unrolled from a Persian

rug at Caesar’s feet after being smuggled into the palace comes from the overzealous pen of Greek biographer Plutarch, but it’s difficult to prove this happened. It seems unlikely that Caesar, one of the most powerful men in the world, would have welcomed a suspicious package into his room and even if so, there’s no reason for her not to have emerged earlier and made a more elegant entrance.

She was a femme fataleThe idea that Cleopatra flittered between powerful men, wooing and manipulating

with no idea of who fathered her children, is the result of an ancient smear campaign run against her by Roman officials. In fact there’s only evidence of her having been with two men – Caesar and Mark Antony.

She was Egyptian One of the most famous Egyptian pharaohs of all time wasn’t Egyptian at all

– she was Greek. Her family line is that of Ptolemy, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and despite her family living in Egypt for over 300 years, she would have been regarded as Greek. Cleopatra was actually rare in that she could speak Egyptian, unlike many of her predecessors.

She wore a fake beardThe concept of female Egyptian queens sporting fake beards comes from the

Egyptian belief that the god Osiris had a grand beard, prompting Egyptian pharaohs to do the same to establish themselves as divine beings. But by the time of Cleopatra this tradition had all but died out, and there’s no record of her donning a fake beard. In fact, the only female pharaoh known to have worn one is Hatshepsut.

She died from an asp bite This myth has gained momentum due to paintings of Cleopatra holding a snake

to her bosom as she passes away. However, the accounts of this event are in some doubt, mainly because an asp will not cause a quick death as Cleopatra’s was reported to be. It is more likely she drank a combination of poisons. The idea that the asp bit her breast is certainly incorrect, as all ancient sources state it bit her on the arm.

“With her skill, drive and cunning she was perfect for rule, she deserved

Egypt, and she wasn’t going to

share it”

FIVE MYTHS UNRAVELLED

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CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

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CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

Ptolemy VIII182-116 BCE

Ptolemy XII117-51 BCE

Arsinoe IV?-41 BCE

Cleopatra IV138-112 BCE

Ptolemy IX143-81 BCE

Ptolemy X?-88 BCE

Ptolemy XI115-80 BCE

Ptolemy XIV60-44 BCE

Cleopatra Selene135-69 BCE

Cleopatra III161-101 BCE

Cleopatra V95-? BCE

Berenice III115-80 BCE

Berenice IV77-55 BCE

Ptolemy XIII62-47 BCE

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Cleopatra VII69-30 BCE

SISTER MARRIES BROTHER

UNCLEMARRIES

NIECE

UNCLE/NIECE/

STEPFATHER/STEPDAUGHTER

MARRY

UNCLE MARRIES

NIECE

SISTER MARRIES BROTHER

SISTER MARRIES BROTHER

SISTER MARRIES BROTHER

ALL IN THE FAMILYFollow Cleopatra’s family tree and discover just how close-knit the Ptolemies really were…

The Ptolemies of Egypt could trace their ancestry to Ptolemy I Soter, a Greek general of Alexander the Great who became ruler of Egypt in 323 BCE. After Alexander’s death, his most senior generals divided his vast territory between themselves. Completely oblivious to the dangers of interbreeding, it became customary for the Ptolemies to marry their brothers and sisters. It was convenient for them as not only did it ensure queens could be trained for their role from birth, but also established them as an elite, untouchable class far removed from the masses, similar to the revered Egyptian gods who married their sisters.

Cleopatra got her own fleet of ships from Caesar

and later Mark Antony

COUSIN MARRIES COUSIN

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The young Ptolemy XIII awoke the next day, not expecting his dangerous older sister to have even made it to the palace. When he discovered that not only was she there, but had also seduced

Caesar overnight into joining her cause, it was the final straw. Screaming in desperation

he fled from the palace, tore his crown from his head and fell to his knees. His sister had done it again. She was completely and utterly impossible to get rid off and, even as the crowd

surged forward in protest, Caesar could not be swayed. The siblings would rule Egypt together, just as their father had intended. Rome had spoken.

The apparent peace did not last long. Already poisoned by the ambitious

whispers that had fed his youth, Ptolemy joined with his rebellious sister Arsinoe IV. Between them they amassed an army large enough to challenge Cleopatra and Caesar’s forces in

Egypt. The country they fought for would pay the price, and in December of 48 BCE the famous stone city of Alexandria was set alight, destroying not only the lives of hundreds of citizens, but also the world-famous library that housed countless priceless manuscripts. When Caesar’s reinforcements poured into the city from Pergamum Ptolemy’s forces were finally defeated. The young and impetuous king tried to flee across the Nile in an overcrowded boat but his vessel sank, dragging him and his elaborate, heavy golden armour down with it.

One Ptolemy was dead, but another still lived. Ptolemy XIV, Cleopatra’s 13-year-old brother, became her husband and co-ruler immediately after her brother’s death. She might have had Caesar’s support, but tradition was still tradition and a lone woman could not rule Egypt. As for Caesar, he had put in place a reliable partnership and Egypt was, for all intents and purposes, a Roman territory. In a lavish display of the new

After the birth of Caesarion, Cleopatra could finally rid herself of the irritating requirement to have a male co-ruler and changed her image from female king to that of divine mother. This would have been eagerly adopted by her Egyptian and Greek subjects who were already very much aware of the most famous and beloved mother in mythology – Isis. With the Egyptian royalty already firmly linked to divine beings it would not take much effort for Cleopatra to portray herself as a vision of the ideal queen, wife and mother. She was quick to create coins bearing her image with the suckling Caesarion at her breast, an instantly recognisable depiction of Isis, the mother of all. To further encourage the cult, she dressed in the ceremonial robes of the goddess and in 34 BCE she was given the title ‘New Isis.’ The cult proved to be so successful that to this day archaeologists and historians struggle to distinguish between statues of the Egyptian goddess, and the queen who became her.

Isis GODDESS OF HEALTH, MARRIAGE, LOVE How powerful was she? Isis was firmly associated with kingship and was portrayed as the mother of pharaohs, as well as capable of using magic strong enough to defy death. What’s her story? Isis was the daughter of the god of Earth and goddess of the sky, married her brother Osiris and became mother of Horus. It was said that she resurrected Osiris after he was murdered by Set, and this rebirth was believed to manifest itself in the seasonal flooding of the Nile, which was vital for Egypt’s survival. It was celebrated every year in rituals and Isis became a prominent and revered figure throughout Egypt.

A GODDESS AMONG MORTALS

The ‘dictator in perpetuity’ as he would come to be known in Rome towered over the small woman; she would have to crane her head to look him in the eye, she realised instantly. He was far older than the young, bold Egyptian queen and his receding hairline was poorly disguised. The general was past his physical prime, but he had just won his greatest victory. This was her first time gazing upon the Roman celebrity known the world over, but this was also the first time he was facing her. Her brother was a child, a mere puppet pharaoh on strings, dancing to the pulls of his corrupt advisors, but she had been granted with all the charm, intelligence and ambition of her forefathers. She would steal Caesar and Rome’s support while her brother slept; her charisma would succeed where her brother’s sword had failed.

After the birth of Caesarion, Cleopatra could finally rid herself of the irritating requirement to have a male co-ruler and changed her image from female king to that of divine mother. This would have been eagerly adopted by her Egyptian and Greek subjects who were already very much aware of the most famous and beloved mother in mythology – Isis. With the Egyptian royalty already firmly linked to divine beings it would not take much effort for Cleopatra to portray herself as a vision of the ideal queen, wife and mother. She was quick to create coins bearing her image with the suckling Caesarion at her breast, an instantly recognisable depiction of Isis, the mother of all. To further encourage the cult, she dressed in the ceremonial robes of the goddess and in 34 BCE she was given the title ‘New Isis.’ The cult proved to be so successful that to this day archaeologists and historians struggle to distinguish between statues of the Egyptian goddess,

GODDESS OF HEALTH, MARRIAGE, LOVE

Isis was firmly associated with kingship and was portrayed as the mother of pharaohs, as well as capable of using magic strong enough to

Isis was the daughter of the god of Earth and goddess of the sky, married her brother Osiris and became mother of Horus. It was said that she resurrected Osiris after he was murdered by Set, and this rebirth was believed to manifest itself in the seasonal flooding of the Nile, which was vital for Egypt’s survival. It was celebrated every year in rituals and Isis became a prominent and revered figure throughout Egypt.

A GODDESS MORTALS

the final straw. Screaming in desperation he fled from the palace, tore his crown

not be swayed. The siblings would rule Egypt together, just as their father had

Cleopatra’s image on a silver coin

CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

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CLEOPATRA’S RUTHLESS RISE TO POWER

to Rome with her son and resided in Caesar’s country house as heated rumours about the paternity of her son gained speed. She did little to squash them; a possible heir of Caesar was a very powerful tool to have.

When Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BCE, Cleopatra left Rome and returned to Alexandria. If there was ever a time to act, it was now. Without her powerful Roman lover by her side she needed an ally who could assure her rule, one who wasn’t going to lead a rebellion against her. Brothers, she had learned, could not be trusted. Later that year the youngest Ptolemy was found dead, seemingly poisoned. The people’s grief was muted; the death of Ptolemies, however young, was not so uncommon in Egypt, and besides, the people had a new pharaoh to replace him, the young Caesarion. Cleopatra had finally done it, she was Egypt’s pharaoh and with her son an infant she was ruling alone in all but name. The power of Egypt was hers.

Dr Joyce Tyldesley teaches Egyptology at Manchester University. She has published a series of books and articles on ancient Egypt: these include Cleopatra, Last Queen Of Egypt, which was a Radio

4 “Book of the Week.” Her most recent book, Tutankhamen’s Curse won the Felicia A Holton Book Award from the Archaeological Institute of America.

Was Cleopatra a good ruler?This is a difficult question to answer, as it depends on the definition of ‘good’. I would certainly argue she was an effective ruler; she inherited a country on the verge of bankruptcy and, bringing a much-needed stability, ruled for over 20 years. For a long time her personal alliances with Rome protected her land against invasion. Compared to many of the earlier Ptolemies she was indeed a good ruler, and it is difficult to think of a contemporary Ptolemy who could have done a better job. What do you believe drove Cleopatra’s actions? Cleopatra was born a member of the Ptolemaic royal family and like all her siblings, she felt she had a right to rule Egypt. So her actions were less a ruthless quest for power and more an assertion of her god-given right to rule. Why do you think people are still fascinated by Cleopatra today?Cleopatra has all the ingredients we seem to like in an ancient world celebrity: fabulous wealth, power, and if not beauty, the ability to bend powerful men to her will. Her dramatic and still not entirely explained death simply adds to her mystique. Is there a side to Cleopatra that you believe has been ignored in modern depictions of her?Two things; first, in the western historical tradition we tend to underestimate her intelligence, seeing her as a woman very much ruled by her heart rather than her head. This is because we draw our history from the Romans. Arab scholars have preserved the memory of a very different Cleopatra; a queen who was first and foremost a scholar.

Secondly, we often overlook the fact that she was a mother to four children. This, to Cleopatra, was extremely important; it influenced her decisions and linked her very closely to the Egyptian goddess Isis, mother of the god Horus.

“Her charisma would succeed

where her brother’s sword

had failed”

EGYPTIAN EXPERT

union, a fleet of Roman and Egyptian ships sailed down the Nile accompanied by the grand royal barge where Cleopatra and Caesar sat together.

Egypt and Rome were united, but Cleopatra still found herself co-ruler to another Ptolemy who would inevitably grow up, ambitious and treacherous. She could not allow another brother to be swayed by advisors and driven against her. As long as Ptolemy XIV lived, her rule was threatened. She wasn’t a fool, she knew Egypt would never accept a solitary female queen, but there was a technicality that would ensure her effective sole rule. Her partnership with Caesar had provided more than his political support, she was pregnant and in 47 BCE gave birth. The gods’ will was in her favour – the child was a boy. She named him Caesarion, or ‘Little Caesar’, and now had an heir. For three years Cleopatra tightened her grip on the Egyptian throne, slowly winning the love of the Alexandrian mobs that had previously screamed for her head. She travelled

Cleopatra was as much an intellectual and scholar as

a passionate fighter

LEFT A 19th-century depiction of Cleopatra on the Cydmus

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19 MYTHS BUSTED: JOAN OF ARC

Joan of Arc was a peasant girl living in France during the Hundred Years’ War. She believed God

wished her to lead the French army to victory and expel the English. Her military successes and subsequent execution have led her to become a national figure in France and a celebrated martyr in the Catholic Church.

French, 1412-1431JEANNE D’ARC

Brief Bio

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Unravel 19 – one for every year of her life – mistruths, legends and myths about the peasant girl who led

France’s armies and became a worldwide icon Written by Frances White

Joan of Arc is a name that is known worldwide. Upheld as a saint in the Catholic Church, a national hero in France and an inspiration to those facing adversity, her tale of heroism and

sacrifice has transcended time and entered into legend. The story of the young rebellious teen who defeated the English army in the Hundred Years’ War before being burned to death by the Inquisition for being a witch has been retold countless times. But just how accurate is this portrayal? She was indeed burned at the stake, but not for being a witch

and certainly not by the Inquisition. She also didn’t win the Hundred Years’ War and, while we’re at it, she wasn’t even all that rebellious. The image of the ferocious, cross-dressing warrior Joan we have today is the one her enemies used to damn her to execution.

It’s only natural for historical figures to pick up some misconceptions and myths along the way, but in Joan’s case the sheer amount of inaccuracies in the face of hard evidence is overwhelming. Ironically, it is the notaries of the trials that tried to wipe her off the planet who have provided us with the most

reliable and insightful information about the woman who lived in the 15th century. These transcripts provide a very different image of Joan, a soft-spoken, pious girl who wept for her enemies and wished more than anything to return to her quiet, farming life. This true image of a girl who was not naturally violent, but instead showed great courage in the face of immense fear and adversity, is perhaps even more inspiring than the warrior goddess she’s painted to be. Read on as we strip away the myths and reveal the true heroine as she really was.

JOANARC

19 MYTHS BUSTED

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Her execution was fakedIn 1436, five years after Joan was burned at the stake, a strange, unexpected figure appeared, seemingly out of nowhere. Her alleged identity caught the attention of the whole of France – she claimed she was Joan of Arc and that she had escaped her execution. There had been plenty of women claiming to be the famous Joan of Arc before, but this woman bore a striking resemblance to the young warrior and, most convincing of all, Joan’s own brothers, Jean and Pierre, were with her and attested to the truth of her tale. This ‘Joan’ claimed she had managed to flee her captors and lived in obscurity for years. The tale caught the attention of the nation, and the three travelled around France, were bestowed with lavish gifts and even visited Joan’s old comrades, who consistently identified her as the woman they believed to have lost five years prior.

It was during her visit to the French King Charles VII in 1440, the man she had helped to put on the throne in 1429, that the lie was unravelled. The king apparently asked ‘Joan’ to tell him the secret she had told him many years prior; the woman was unable to answer and confessed her treachery, revealing herself to be a woman named Jeanne des Armoises. The idea of the real Joan of Arc escaping her execution can be disproved by the sheer amount of eyewitnesses at her execution. The English were so worried that people would attest that she escaped that they made the executioner push the fire back so all present could see her charred corpse.

While pretending to be Joan, Jeanne des Armoises visited

the Princess Elizabeth of Luxembourg and went on

several pilgrimages

TO DO:Chase sinful women out of camp out of camp Chase sinful women out of camp Chase sinful women

Return to mother and fatherReturn to mother and fatherReturn to mother

Sew a new dressPractise weaving Practise weaving Milk the cows

Dust the houseHelp mother with the Help mother with the Help mother with the spinning spinning Help mother with the spinning Help mother with the Help mother with the spinning Help mother with the

The reasons for Joan’s feminist status today are fairly obvious – a young girl leaving home to lead armies of men at the height of one of the biggest conflicts in Europe – but by today’s standards Joan would be the opposite of a feminist. The young warrior’s favourite hobbies were not disobeying authority and fighting for justice with a sword, but the far more traditionally feminine

pastimes of sewing, weaving and cleaning. Her most boastful comments were not about her ability to lead men, but her skill in besting any woman with a needle and spindle. When she was directly questioned about why she wasn’t doing more “womanly duties” she simply replied that other women were already doing them. She was also known to loathe the female

camp followers, and there are even accounts of her chasing them off with a sword – hardly the actions of an ambassador for female rights. Joan’s quest was first and foremost to put a man on the throne of France, and she led not women into battle, but men. Hardly rocking the foundations of gender roles, she was rather reinforcing the tradition that men, not women, should be in power.

She was a feminist

Joan was hardly the miraculously

gifted horse rider she’s painted to be; she learned

to ride as she conducted her mission, and was placed

with the slowest riders in battle.

19 MYTHS BUSTED: JOAN OF ARC

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The Catholic Church wanted her deadThe notion that the Catholic Church personally hunted Joan down seems to be coupled with the idea she was either Protestant or guilty of witchcraft, which are both absurd theories. Not only is there not a shred of evidence to support her allegiance to Wicca (a pagan religion) in any way, but when Joan was asked about this at the trial her answers proved not only contempt for pagan practises, but also that she had no real idea what they actually were.

Similar can be said about the theory that she was Protestant, and she even threatened to lead a crusade against the Hussites (an early Protestant group) if they didn’t convert to Catholicism. The Catholics present at the trial were led not by some epic religious quest, but by their own personal political allegiances to the English. Most of the Catholic clergy actually supported Joan and she was upheld as a ‘true Catholic’ before she began her campaign.

Joan was a rebellious childThroughout history rebellious teen girls have frequently been compared to Joan of Arc, with the young saint being portrayed as a devil-may-care rebel who disobeyed her parents to lead armies. The French icon was quite the opposite; quiet, pious, dedicated to her family and diligent, with the most rebellious action attributed to her young years going off to visit local churches without

permission. She approached her mission with some reluctance and consistently expressed a desire to return home to her parents. The most damning evidence against her rebellious personality is the fact that the prosecution made the very same claim against her in trial, but were forced to retract the accusation upon finding absolutely no evidence to substantiate it.

A jar of alleged relics of Joan of Arc consisting of a human

rib, linen and wood have since been proven to have come from an Egyptian mummy

Joan witnessed the raiding and burning of Domrémy,

her home village

Joan, a naïve 17-year-old peasant girl, certainly showed immense bravery riding into battle alongside seasoned warriors, but she was no military genius. In fact, Joan’s rash actions and reckless decisions proved more than once to be a dangerous addition to the French army. For example, upon approaching Orléans she insisted the English should be attacked from the north as that was where their greatest numbers lay. The commanders were so against this potentially disastrous strategy that they took the convoy on a different route without telling Joan. When the attack did happen, Joan was napping and nearly missed the entire battle. When the young warrior acted of her own accord and tried to attack the stronghold of Boulevart, she narrowly escaped disaster and had to be dragged off the field amid mass panic. After this she was asked to sit out on the assault the next day, a request she ignored.

She was a great military tactician

English forcesFrench forces

1. Assault on St Loup France fights back The count of Dunois attacks the Eastern English bastille of St Loup. 140 English are killed with 40 more taken as prisoners. An attempt by the English to distract attention with an attack on the north of Orléans fails.

3. Tourelles attackedJoans leads from the frontJoan leads an assault on the English stronghold known as Boulevart. The French rush up the ladders and force the English out, who flee. The French follow them and nearly 1,000 English soldiers perished in the attack, and the Tourelles is set aflame.

4. End of the siegeFrance finally victoriousThe English abandon the siege and their northern troops assemble in a field near St Laurent. The French army stands against them and they stare each other down for an hour before the English withdraw.

2. Augustines assaultThe assault continues The French set their sights on the south bank. Joan leads an assault on the bastille of the Augustines, and it falls into French hands.

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The vision of Joan of Arc swapping her dresses for trousers and armour at the first opportunity is a common one, and it was the act of wearing

male clothes that she was finally executed for. But she did not wear boys’ clothing from

preference, but rather as a necessity – first to enable her to ride a horse with more

ease and later to protect herself from the many rape attempts she faced. Not only did Joan happily wear a dress for the 17

years of her life before she embarked on her journey, but she also begged to be buried in a dress if she died in prison.

Joan was forced to wear men’s clothes when she was given no female clothes to wear in prison

Today Joan is uphold as a national hero and martyr, but at the time many of the citizens of France were more likely to celebrate her death than mourn it. For the English, the death of the mascot of the French forces was an important boon, and they openly rejoiced at the news of her execution. Those who supported Joan and Charles VII would have taken the news with sadness, but there was no mass mourning, and the royal court didn’t recognise her death. It took years for France to revoke the trial sentence and embrace Joan as the figure she is today. After her innocence was declared, she gradually became a legendary figure for the four centuries after her death, and was used as a political symbol by Napoleon in the early-19th century. To date, there have been over 20 statues created in her honour, countless paintings, operas, films and even French Navy ships named after her.

The French people were angry about her death

● Battle of CrécyEdward III’s English troops decimate the French forces by utilising new weapons and military tactics. This victory allows the English army to besiege and claim the town of Calais as English territory. 26 August 1346

The war at a glance1346

● Battle of PoitiersThe English forces raiding their way through the French countryside, finally meet resistance in King John II of France, but the battle sees the English destroy the French forces and capture the French king. 19 September 1356

● Treaty of BrétignyKing John II and King Edward III’s treaty hands over much French land to England, under the duress that Edward renounces all claims to the French throne. 25 May 1360

● Battle of AgincourtAfter English king Henry V claims the French throne, he leads his forces to northern France. Despite being outnumbered, the English forces defeat and cripple the French army, leading to a new period of war. 25 October 1415

● Treaty of TroyesIt is agreed that Henry will inherit the throne of France upon the death of Charles VI. This agreement goes on to prompt the later stages of the war, with many English kings claiming the throne. 21 May 1420

● Battle of Castillon English forces capture Bordeaux. In response, King Charles VII attacks the English forces and defeats them. The battle results in the loss of all English land in France except for the Pale of Calais. 17 July 1453

● Siege of Orléans French and English forces battle over possession of Orléans, which holds great strategic advantage. The tide turns when Joan of Arc enters the city. Nine days after her arrival, the siege collapses and France claim their first major victory for many years. 12 Oct 1428 – 8 May 1429

The French victory in the Hundred Years’ War was thanks to Joan

Although there is no denying Joan’s presence helped lift the siege of Orléans, leading to the crowning of Charles VII, it would be incorrect to attest the ultimate French victory to her. Not only was Joan executed 20 years before the final battle at Castillon, but several other important factors led to the eventual French victory. The period of the war was a transition period for France, as the country developed from a medieval feudal system to a modern state with a professional army. The long periods

between individual conflicts of the war allowed the French army to gather its strength and become a fierce, organised force. The English army were faced with severe funding issues and became distracted with conflict back at home that led to the War of the Roses, so the French campaign became unfeasible. While Joan certainly inspired nationalism among a dejected army, the intricacies of the war are far too varied and complex to place the victory solely on one brave woman with a banner.

The French people

Men’s clothing were her garments

of choice The vision of Joan of Arc swapping her dresses for trousers and armour at the first opportunity is a common one, and it was the act of wearing

male clothes that she was finally executed for. But she did not wear boys’ clothing from

Joan was forced to wear men’s clothes when she was given no female clothes to wear in prison

Men’s clothing were her garments

Men’s clothing were her garments

Men’s clothing

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Joan said herself that she “did not know ‘a’ from ‘b’,” but this does not mean she was stupid. It is especially obvious when examining the court transcripts from her trial that she possessed a quick mind. For example, when asked by a man with a thick accent what language the voices in her head spoke in, she replied that they spoke better than he did. Her responses show that she was a woman with good mental reasoning and intelligence. It is important to remember that she was able not only to convince Charles VII, but also a legion of high-ranking military officials that she deserved a place leading their army.

“FEAR NO MULTITUDE WHATSOEVER. DO NOT HESITATE TO ASSAULT THE ENGLISH. GOD CONDUCTS OUR WORK. IF I HAD NOT THIS ASSURANCE, I WOULD RATHER

GUARD SHEEP THAN EXPOSE MYSELF TO SO GREAT PERILS.”

The third son of King Henry IV, John Lancaster served as regent of

France for King Henry VI, his nephew. Because his actions led to the capture and eventual execution of Joan of Arc, history has placed a black blot against his name, and an unfair one. Not only

was John a skilled military tactician, but he also displayed great bravery in battle and acted as a thoughtful

and merciful governor among reckless leaders. Considering the era of his

life, Bedford was restrained and sympathetic, with unrelenting loyalty

to his cause and family.

The Duke of Bedford was an evil man

The only unusual thing about Joan’s command of an army is not her gender, but her social standing. It was common during the era for aristocratic women to command their family’s forces in the absence of a brother or husband. And rather than going against the grain and breaking social norms, this was actually adhering to the feudal society in France at the time. Joan was granted command because of the religious society that believed anyone could receive a divine calling, and it should be listened to. It is highly unlikely that a legion of male soldiers would have followed her word if the inclusion of women in battle had not already been widely accepted at the time.

It was unusual for women to lead armies

IN HER OWN WORDS

Joanna of Flanders

Joanna of Flanders was married to John de Montfort and served as consort

duch*ess of Brittany from 1341 to 1345. She played an active part in the War of Breton Succession, where she led the Montfortist

armies after her husband was captured. Joanna managed to capture the commune of Redon

and at the siege of Hennebont she encouraged the women to “cut their skirts and take their

safety in their own hands.” Joanna was described as entering the fray with

her sword and fighting “with the heart of a lion.”

John led the English army to several victories, for example at the Battle of Verneuil, described as a second Agincourt “IT IS TRUE THAT I

WISHED AND STILL WISH TO ESCAPE,

AS IS LAWFUL FOR ANY CAPTIVE OR

PRISONER.”

She wasn’t intelligent

“TRULY, IF YOU WERE TO TEAR ME LIMB FROM LIMB AND SEPARATE

MY SOUL FROM MY BODY, I WOULD NOT SAY ANYTHING MORE. IF I DID SAY ANYTHING, AFTERWARD I WOULD ALWAYS

DECLARE THAT YOU MADE ME SAY IT BY FORCE”

The allegations that Joan sold her body to men were

disproved when she was examined during her

capture and proved to be a virgin.

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This myth is one of the oldest ones concerning Joan, borne out of the ancient belief that someone from such low social standing could not possibly accomplish such remarkable things. In 1407 a baby was born to the Orléans family who died soon after birth, so people jumped on the idea that Joan must have been this ‘lost’ child, secretly bundled away and coached to later emerge and lead France to victory. This absurd theory ignores the fact that this child indeed did die as the records say and was born five years before Joan. There is not a shred of evidence to back up this conspiracy theory, and it is quite absurd that the idea of Joan having royal blood somehow legitimises her achievements, as during this period several members of the French royal family were suffering from mental disabilities and insanity themselves.

Charles of Orléans was her father

The belief that Joan was immediately hailed as a saint straight after her burning at the stake is incorrect. In fact it took 25 years for a second trial to even take place. The retrial took place in 1456 following an investigation in 1452 and a formal appeal in 1455. Overseen by Pope Callixtus III at the request of Joan’s mother and Inquisitor-General Jean Bréhal, the trial examined testimony from 115 witnesses and concluded that Joan was innocent of her crimes. Originally 70 charges were brought against Joan, but these were reduced to 12, which varied from witchcraft to horse theft. The two that she was eventually found guilty of were heresy and cross-dressing. Although Joan became a strong figure in the Catholic Church, she wasn’t actually canonised until 16 May 1920 by Pope Benedict XV, almost 500 years after her death.

Her canonisation swiftly followed her death

Although ‘The Maid of Orléans’ is remembered as a fearless warrior, she admitted at her trial that she never killed anyone. In fact, Joan was probably one of the mildest figures on the field, and her comrades attested to the fact that she wept and prayed for the departed souls on both sides of the battle. Joan took less of a combat role and acted as a sort of ‘mascot’ for the troops. Although she carried a sword, it was her banner she relied on, proclaiming, “I liked much better, even forty times, my standard than my sword.” The image of Joan tearing across the battlefield slaughtering the English is not true, but she was very brave – at the Siege of Orléans she was shot with an arrow between her neck and shoulder but stayed on the battlefield to encourage the French troops.

She was a great warrior

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The Inquisition arranged her trialThe assumption that the Inquisition hunted down Joan and pushed for her trial is a common one, but inaccurate. Pierre Cauchon was the main judge at the trial, but he was not a member of the Inquisition, and in fact there was only one inquisitor there – Jean Le Maistre. Maistre did not attend the trial, but was forced to preside by the English who threatened him with death if he dared to refuse. At the retrial years after Joan’s death, Inquisitor Jean Bréhal agreed with Maistre that the trial and conviction was wholly illegal. Those who did speak out about the illegality and unfair proceedings during the trial were either thrown in prison themselves or threatened with death by the English, with the inquisitors not exempt from these threats. Joan’s trial and eventually execution was wholly political, and the entire proceedings were controlled by the English who wished to rid France of this dangerous woman who threatened their victory.

The appearance of three mysterious voices in Joan’s head sent the French teenager off in her quest to expel the English from her homeland. The accusation that Joan was lying about these holy voices was as common at the time as it is today. At her trial Joan was asked frequently about the voices, about what they told her to do and the nature of their appearances. Considering Joan was representing herself and was subjected to daily physical and mental exhaustion, it would not have been surprising if her tale deviated – but it did not. Under constant questioning Joan’s account of her miraculous visions remained constant. Joan experienced her first vision when she was 12 years old; the voices told her to drive the English out of the country and bring the dauphin Charles to Reims to be crowned. It wasn’t until she was 16 that she felt compelled to follow them.

It seems unlikely she made the three saintly voices up for attention, as the story would likely unravel under the interrogation of skilled lawyers. Whether the voices really did come from saints and angels as Joan claimed is impossible to validate, but what we can say with some certainty is that Joan believed the voices she heard were legitimate, and she followed them despite putting herself in danger.

VOICES IN HER HEAD

SAINT MICHAEL ARCHANGEL IN CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM AND JUDAISM Known for: Leading God’s armies and defeating Satan in the Book of Revelation

SAINT CATHERINE EGYPTIAN, 282-305 Known for: Converting hundreds of people to Christianity aged 14, executed by Emperor Maxentius.

SAINT MARGARETGREEK, UNKNOWN-304 Known for: Being disowned and tortured due to her Christian beliefs and prompting many miraculous incidents to occur. Was killed aged 15.

Prosecutor Jean Beaupere served as a prosecutor during Joan’s trial. He interrogated her mercilessly and insisted there were natural causes for Joan’s visions. He later testified about the trial in 1452 during the investigations for the retrial.

Judge The Bishop of Beauvaid, Pierre Cauchon, served as the judge at Joan’s trial and was the primary catalyst behind her sentencing and execution. An English sympathiser, he used intimidation, fraud and threats to bring Joan to her eventual downfall.

Inquisitor The presence of a member of the Inquisition was required by law to validate the trial, but Vice Inquisitor Jean Le Maistre was mostly absent. It was later reported that Le Maistre refused to cooperate until his life was threatened by the English, and he subsequently played a very small part in the trial.

aged 15.

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She lied about the voices in

her head

There is no evidence at all that

Joan was hom*osexual and this ‘crime’ did not feature on the long list

of accusations she faced at trial.

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“Pankhurst believed that the women’s right to influence policy-

making was the only way

society would be reformed”

Heroes & VillainsEMMELINE PANKHURST

Emmeline Pankhurst was

sent to finishing school in Paris. Her

headmistress felt girls’ education should be

as thorough as boys’

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Time before chocolateFood was bland and the working class lived on a diet of bread, butter and potatoes – meat was a luxury. In the late 19th century, however, canned food became available for the first time, several new biscuits were invented (including the digestive in 1892), and the first chocolate bar was made in 1847.

Life in the time of Emmeline Pankhurst

Poor educationIt wasn’t until 1870 that the state took responsibility for education in Britain. Before then, churches were tasked with providing schools for poor children. In 1880, school became compulsory for five to ten-year-olds, but there was a charge for all but the poorest children until 1891.

No weekendsIn the early 19th century, everyone had Sunday off but the weekend wasn’t truly born until the 1890s when most workers gained a half day holiday on a Saturday! Until then, people were only given a few paid holidays each year under the Bank Holiday Act of 1871.

Birth of the printing pressThe steam-driven printing press was invented in 1814 and enabled newspapers to become commonplace. By 1896, the Daily Mail had hit the shelves, where it has remained in Britain ever since. Its style was deliberately sensational to appeal to less-educated readers.

Railway revolutionGetting from A to B became much easier when the railway boom took off in the 1800s. The first major railway was from Liverpool to Manchester, where Emmeline Pankhurst lived. This opened in 1830. By 1890, the first electric underground trains were running in London.

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We are here, not because we are law-breakers; we are here in our efforts to be law-makers.” Those immortal words by Emmeline Pankhurst encapsulated the Suffragette Movement. As their iron-willed

leader, she fought for women’s right to vote in the United Kingdom – by any means. The motto was “Deeds, not words”, and a campaign of vandalism, violent protests and arson reigned. Pankhurst saw it as her duty to break the law in order to draw attention to the reasons behind her actions; a belief that would see her arrested on countless occasions and even cause a rift within her own family. She argued that unless women were given political power, the laws of the country wouldn’t have an equal standard of morals. Articulate and strong, Pankhurst would enter the history books for influencing how women were perceived within society – a role she seemed almost destined to fulfil from an early age.

Much of Pankhurst’s political education took place at her home in Manchester, England. Her parents Robert Goulden and Sophia Crane were involved in many social movements such as the abolition of slavery, and her grandfather had even been in the crowd at the Peterloo Massacre in 1819. Unsurprisingly, she was barely into her teens when a young Emmeline Pankhurst followed in their footsteps. “I was 14 years old when I went to my first

suffrage meeting,” she wrote in her autobiography, My Own Story. “Returning from school one day, I met my mother just setting out for the meeting, and I begged her to let me go along.”

Her childhood was a happy one, surrounded by a loving family in a comfortable home, but she couldn’t help but sense the inequality between genders. It started when Pankhurst and her brothers were sent to school. While her father spent a great deal of time discussing the boys’ education, hers

and her sister’s were scarcely mentioned at all. While feigning sleep one night,

she overheard her father mutter, “What a pity she wasn’t born a

lad.” His words stuck with her for days before she concluded that men saw themselves as superior to women, and that she didn’t regret her sex one

bit. “I suppose I had always been an unconscious suffragist,” she

reflected. “With my temperament and my surroundings, I could scarcely

have been otherwise.” Before Pankhurst joined the fight, suffrage – the

right to vote in political elections – had been stirring for years. In 1866, a group of women presented a petition to MPs and an amendment to the Reform Act was proposed. It was defeated in Parliament by 196 votes to 73 and women’s suffrage groups started to form all over the country. In 1897, 17 of these groups banded together to create the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. Led by Millicent

Discover the makings of a militant as we look back on the incredible story of the suffragette leader

Emmeline Pankhurst

Heroes & Villains

Written by Jodie Tyley

Emmeline Pankhurst being arrested at King’s Gate in May 1914 in her attempts to reach Buckingham Palace. Many others were arrested and adopted hunger strikes

Born on 15 July 1858, Pankhurst

claimed her birthday was 14 July, Bastille

Day, which marks the start of the French

Revolution

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● BornEmmeline Pankhurst is born in Moss Side in Manchester, England, to parents that are very politically active. She has 11 siblings, but three tragically die before the age of two.15 July 1858

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Timeline1858

Defi ning momentBirth of first child 22 September 1880Richard and Emmeline Pankhurst’s first child, Christabel, is born less than a year after their marriage. Christabel grows up to be very close to her mother, co-founding the Women’s Social and Political Union and spending 15 years working alongside her. Other siblings notice the bond, as younger daughter Sylvia notes in 1931: “She was our mother’s favourite; we all knew it, and I, for one, never resented the fact.” In 1959, Christabel writes Unshackled: The Story Of How We Won The Vote, and lauds her mother’s dedication.

● WSPU is launchedPankhurst forms the National Women’s Social and Political Union in Manchester, with the help of her eldest daughter. Their motto is “Deeds, not words” and their aim is to win the vote for women. The women-only activist group is independent of government and political parties. October 1903

Heroes & VillainsEMMELINE PANKHURST

Fawcett, they were characterised by their peaceful campaign tactics, holding public meetings and distributing posters and leaflets, but without progress. Pankhurst, however, would wash her hands of this approach when she founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903.

It was the horrors she witnessed while working as a Poor Law guardian that drove her to believe that “Deeds, not words” was the only way forward. The regular visits to the Manchester workhouses exposed her to many elderly women who had been domestic-servant class, unmarried and who had lost their job only to wind up with no other option than to slave away in the workhouse. Pregnant women would be separated from their babies after two weeks if they wanted to remain in the workhouse,

or leave without a home or hope. It was these women who stoked the

fire in Pankhurst, giving her the fervent belief that the women’s right to influence

policy-making was the only way society would be reformed. “Women have more practical ideas about relief… than men display,” she said.

During this time, Pankhurst was supported by her husband, who did a great deal to bolster her beliefs. As a radical liberal barrister 24 years her senior, Dr Richard Pankhurst was a socialist and stoic supporter of the women’s suffrage movement. They married in 1879 and became a formidable team. Together, they founded the Women’s Franchise League – an organisation that strived to secure the vote for women in local elections. But tragedy soon struck as Richard Pankhurst’s untimely death left

● MarriedAfter returning from finishing school in Paris, she meets the lawyer Richard Pankhurst, who shares her views on women’s suffrage. They marry in Salford.18 December 1879

● Women’s Franchise League beginsEmmeline Pankhurst and her husband found the Women’s Franchise League, aiming to give women the vote in local elections. 1 January 1889

● Richard diesRichard Pankhurst dies suddenly of stomach ulcers, leaving Emmeline and five children. In his lifetime, he did much for women’s suffrage, including writing the Married Women’s Property Act of 1870.5 July 1898

The Poor LawThe 1800s saw the introduction of the Poor Law – a lifeline to the impoverished. According to the law, each parish had to set money aside for those who were unable to work. However, changes to the law in 1834 saw the cost of looking after the poor dramatically reduced. The Poor Law Amendment

Act meant that money was only given to the poor in exceptional circ*mstances and, if they wanted help, they had to go to a workhouse and earn it. Food and shelter was given in exchange for manual labour, but the conditions were so dreadful that only the truly desperate would turn to this solution.

Emmeline Pankhurst would witness the horrors first-hand, after joining the Independent Labour Party and being elected as Poor Law guardian in Chorlton-on-Medlock in Manchester, England. “The first time I went into the place I was horrified to see little girls seven and eight-years-old on their knees scrubbing the cold stones of the long corridors,” she said. “I found that there were pregnant women in that workhouse, scrubbing floors, doing the hardest kind of work, almost until their babies came into the world.” At once, she began to use her position on the board of guardians to try and change these conditions for the better. This activism lit a fire that would spur her on to becoming the leader of the suffragettes.

Members of the Women’s Social and Political Union campaigning for women’s suffrage in Kingsway

Pankhurst made a

controversial switch in 1926, from the

Independent Labour Party to the

Conservatives

One of her homes

in Manchester was opened as the

Pankhurst Centre, a museum and a space

for women to congregate

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1930

every bit as capable as their male counterparts, taking on important industrial roles, from working in munitions factories to labouring on farms.

Society’s attitudes towards the sexes finally started to change and on 10 January 1918, the Representation of the People Act was passed. This granted the vote to all ‘respectable’ ladies over 30-years-old who were householders or married to householders. To this day, historians still debate whether it was the Great War that brought about the victory for the suffragettes, or whether the pre-war political movement should take the credit. Some also argue whether the militant campaign did more harm than good. Either way, Emmeline Pankhurst did a great deal to draw attention to her passionate belief that women deserved to be equal.

Sadly, she died in the month before the right to vote was extended to all women over 21 years of age on 2 July 1928 – finally on a par with men in the United Kingdom. Just two years after her death, Pankhurst’s efforts were commemorated with a statue in London’s Victoria Tower Gardens. At the unveiling, a crowd of former suffragettes gathered to pay their respects to such a dedicated foot soldier of the feminist movement.

Defi ning momentDemanding votes21 June 1908500,000 activists storm Hyde Park in London demanding votes for women. Prime Minister Asquith is unmoved, angering members of the WSPU. After the rally, 12 women gather in Parliament Square to speak on women’s rights but are stopped. Two WSPU members, Edith New and Mary Leigh, hurl rocks at the windows of 10 Downing Street. Pankhurst is pleased, despite denying WSPU involvement.

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Heroes & VillainsEMMELINE PANKHURST

her alone with five children to support. In spite of such odds, she threw herself whole-heartedly into the suffrage movement and later, so would her daughters. A crucial step was transforming the Women’s Franchise League into a women-only activist group – the Women’s Social And Political Union.

It was Emmeline Pankhurst’s eldest daughter Christabel who persuaded her mother that the WFL she had set up some 14 years before had fallen hopelessly out of touch. She had inherited her parents’ indomitable values and became a leading member of the WSPU, and in 1905 was one of the first suffragettes to be thrown in prison. Her crime was interrupting a Liberal Party meeting, shouting demands for women’s votes and reportedly assaulting a police officer, but the acts of the WSPU would grow to be much more violent, eventually using arson as a tactic. It proved a step too far for two of Pankhurst’s daughters, Adela and Sylvia, and they left the activist group. Those who remained cut phone lines, sent letter bombs and attacked the home of Chancellor David Lloyd George. “I have never advised the destruction of life, but of property, yes,” admitted Pankhurst.

In 1912, she was sent to Holloway Prison for smashing windows, a place she described as “at once the stuffiest and the draughtiest building” she had ever set foot in. While in prison, however, suffragettes were not recognised as political prisoners because the government didn’t see their actions as such. To protest against what she saw as unjust and lengthy sentences (three months for breaking a window, for instance), Pankhurst went on hunger strike, resulting in violent force-feeding. She wasn’t alone in her actions and the government retaliated with the ‘Cat and Mouse’ Act, where striking prisoners were released until they grew

strong enough to be re-arrested. These acts split public opinion, particularly when suffragette Emily Davison walked on to the course at the Epsom Derby and

was trampled by King George V’s horse, dying four days later.

Pankhurst later wrote that Emily “clung to her conviction that one great

tragedy, the deliberate throwing into the breach of a human life, would put an end to the intolerable torture of women.”

What would put an end to the militant activism, however, was war. On 4 August 1914 – just days after the First World War broke out – Pankhurst and her daughter ordered a truce between the WSPU and the government. Considering it their patriotic duty, they channelled their energies into helping the war effort and subsequently all suffragettes were released from prison. As Pankhurst pointed out, there was no use fighting for a vote when there might not be a country left in which they could cast one. So as men went to fight overseas, the suffragette leaders volunteered to take their place. It was an unexpected opportunity to prove that women were

● Hunger strikesThe WSPU protest against what they perceived as unfair prison sentences by going on hunger strike. Police officers resort to violently force-feeding the women using tubes.1909

● The Conciliation BillWhen the Conciliation Bill that would have given women the vote is dropped, Pankhurst starts a protest in anger. Over 100 women are arrested and charged for disturbing the peace.18 November 1910

● TruceTwo days after the outbreak of the First World War, Emmeline and Christabel call an immediate halt to suffrage activism and support their country in the war effort.4 August 1914

● Votes for men and womenThe Representation of the People Act grants votes to all men over the age of 21 and to women over the age of 30.6 February 1918

“The acts of the WSPU would grow to be much more violent, eventually using arson as a tactic”

1930

● Emmeline diesEmmeline Pankhurst dies just weeks before the vote is extended to all women over 21 years of age, on 2 July 1928. 14 June 1928

● CommemoratedTwo years after her death, Emmeline Pankhurst is commemorated with a statue in London’s Victoria Tower Gardens. A crowd of radicals and former suffragettes gather to celebrate her.6 March 1930

Emmeline Pankhurst in 1911, jeered by a disapproving crowd in New York

Pankhurst was encouraged

to run for the House of Commons, but

insisted her daughter Christabel would be

a better choice

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The sun streamed down on the brisk spring morning as a figure emerged near from four-turreted White Tower of the Tower of London. The crowd that had gathered there were oddly quiet; they watched silently as

the slender woman passed through them. She was dressed in a loose, grey gown, so dark it was almost black, with a red petticoat underneath. An ermine mantle was draped around her neck, and her long dark hair was tied above her head, exposing her thin, dainty neck. Two of her ladies accompanied her as she climbed the scaffold that had been erected for the day’s sombre event. Her steps were strong and firm, her countenance steely and unreadable.

Although the strength of her steps was remarkable for one facing her death, when she turned to the crowd and spoke her voice trembled. However, her words rang out loud and clear. She begged the people to forgive her if she had not treated them with gentleness, and then prayed that God would have mercy for those who had condemned her. She ended by praying for the king, who was a good, gentle, and sovereign lord.

All these things she uttered, but not once did she admit her guilt for the crimes she would die for. Her words were so sweet, her manner so graceful, that many gathered there shed a tear for the condemned woman.

She wished farewell to her weeping ladies, and removed her headdress, tucking her long, thick hair under a coif. As she knelt upright, one of her ladies came forward and tied a blindfold over her eyes. She began to mutter under her breath “Jesu receive my soul; O Lord God have pity on my soul”, over and over again. She prayed silently as she received her husband’s final gift, a swordsman of Saint-Omer; he had given her the mercy of a sword in place of an axe. The executioner raised the sword high, its sharpened blade gleaming in the sunlight, then brought it down upon her thin neck. It was all over in a single stroke. The queen was dead.

It is portrayed, often unfairly, that Anne Boleyn descended on King Henry VIII like some sort of wicked, conniving temptress, luring him away with her dark looks and feminine charms from his almost 24-year-long marriage, young daughter

and queen beloved by the population. But Henry had been anything but loyal to Catherine, and had already fathered his illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy before Anne was in the picture. In fact, it had been Anne’s sister, Mary, who initially caught the king’s attention, and he conducted an affair with the older Boleyn sister that may have resulted in two more children. When Henry was first drawn to Anne, it is highly likely that he desired her simply as another mistress. But she had other plans.

The new lady in waiting was a captivating figure. Having recently returned from serving the French Queen Claude, she boasted an elegance and poise that instantly created a stir. Her dark features were unfashionable for the time, but her deep brown eyes and unusual beauty caught the attention of more than just the king. Among those competing for her affections were Sir Thomas Wyatt, an acclaimed poet, and Henry Percy, who even went as far as to secure Anne’s hand in a secret betrothal. However, all those with their gaze fixed upon the enchanting young debutante soon found themselves facing a rival they could not hope to better – the king of England.

Follow the romantic beginning and disastrous end of the love affair that rocked the very

foundations of England itself

Written by Frances White

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Born to a respected but ambitious family, Anne caught the attention of King Henry VIII of England

while serving his wife in court. The king’s desire to marry Anne plunged the country into the English Reformation, but Anne’s tenure as queen lasted just three years. After repeated failures to produce a male heir, a plot concocted against Anne led to her conviction, death and worldwide infamy.

English, 1501-1536ANNE BOLEYN

Brief Bio

Anne Boleyn

AN OBJECT OF LUSTAppearance Although opinion is divided on Anne’s true appearance, she presented herself with great grace and manners. She was dressed in the latest fashions and is consistently described as being elegant and sophisticated. Henry was captivated by the bewitching and fair persona Anne presented at court.

Social standing Although her father was descended from middle-class tradesmen, through her mother Anne’s ancestry was linked to Margaret of France and her husband, King Edward I. Her ambitious father boosted the family reputation at court and he entered the king’s most intimate circle.

Intelligence Henry was desperate to be seen as a modern, cosmopolitan man and did everything to beat his rival King Francis I of France. Not only had Anne served in the French court, but she was also intelligent, witty and an accomplished singer and musician; certainly a catch for a man looking to prove his suitability to the throne.

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V

NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS

CROWNKING HENRY VIII POPE CLEMENT VII

CHURCH

2 MILLION

“If a man shall take his brother’s

wife it is an unclean thing…

they shall be childless”

King Henry VIII quoting the Bible, Leviticus, 20:21, as justification for seeking a divorce

from Catherine of Aragon

“Forbids Henry to remarry until

the decision of the case, and

declares that if he does all issue

will be illegitimate”

ON DIVORCE

PURPLE VELVET, ITALIAN AND FRENCH FASHION, LARGE

PUFFED SLEEVES, FEATHERED HAT, FUR MANTLE, MULTIPLE

EXPENSIVE PIECES OF JEWELLERY

STRICT POPE ATTIRE, CHOIR DRESS – A WHITE SILK CASSOCK, SCULL CAP

AND A LACE ROCHET

DRESS SENSE

“Forbids any one in England, universities, parliaments, courts of law, etc, to make any decision in an affair

the judgment of which is reserved for the Holy See”

“For all the prelates at their consecration make an oath

to the Pope clean contrary to the oath that they make to us, so that they seem to be

his subjects, and not ours”

ON RELIGION

Hever Castle was the childhood home of Anne Boleyn

A depiction of Anne Boleyn being condemned to death

WEALTH

75 MILLIONOVER

Anne Boleyn

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Henry prided himself on his image – he was obsessed with his appearance and was constantly attempting to prove himself as an accomplished, charismatic and capable leader. With his own claim to the throne emerging from the turbulent War of the Roses, he was determined to do everything in his power to secure his and his descendant’s place as king. As models of the Renaissance man, Henry had a friendly rivalry with Francis I of France and did anything he could do to outmatch him. Anne was trained at the French courts herself, and boasted all the glamour, exceptional skills and intelligence Henry wished to embody himself. He wanted her instantly.

However, unlike her sister, Anne was not a weak-willed girl who would bow to the will of a man. Anne’s courtly education in the royal palaces of the Netherlands and France had given her grace, elegance and a beautiful singing voice – but it had also given her one other thing: knowledge of the game of courtly love. She knew what became of the mistresses of kings; she had witnessed her own sister tossed aside the moment his attention had been drawn by another. She had already been denied the love of her sweetheart, Henry Percy, having been deemed unworthy by his father. Henry’s obvious affections for her would provide the perfect opportunity to prove just how much she was worth. Anne did something no woman before her had dared to do: she said no to the king.

Rather than outraging him, Anne’s rejection spurred Henry to chase her more fervently. He bestowed her with gifts, penned love letter after love letter, but the enchanting but strong-willed woman still said no. When he offered for her to be his official mistress, that too was rejected. She was everything all the women in his life had never been – rather than agreeing politely, she challenged his opinions, debating with him on subjects such as theology. She was passionate, brash and fiery, and she had well and truly set Henry alight. There was no doubt in his mind that such a young, virile woman would bear him the male heir that would ensure the continuation of his line. Sometime

in 1527, after a year of chasing her, he proposed marriage to Anne, and finally she said yes.

While we have reams of Henry’s love letters, and the extreme decisions that would follow his proposal as evidence of his strong feelings for Anne, we can only speculate on what was going on in the young woman’s head. She was under immense pressure from her ambitious father and uncle to elevate the family name – something a match with a king would no doubt achieve – but the lengths to which Henry would go to ensure she became queen must have been captivating for the younger daughter of a family with commoner roots. Because Henry did indeed have great lengths to travel, there was the small matter of his current

wife, the now-infertile Catherine of Aragon. Henry, at least in the early part of his

reign, was well known as a devout Catholic. He had even been

named a so-called ‘defender of the faith’ by Pope Leo X, and it was to the Bible he turned to seek an annulment for his 24-year-long marriage to the mother of his only legitimate

child to date. He argued with Pope Clement VII that his

marriage to Catherine, who had been his late brother’s wife,

directly went against the words in Leviticus 20:21. But the Pope wasn’t a

fool; to allow the annulment would contradict the decision made by a previous infallible Pope to allow the marriage between Henry and Catherine in the first place. Again Henry was told no and again he was denied Anne and the male heir he so badly desired.

Henry had heard enough ‘nos’ so on 23 May 1533 he took matters into his own hands and ordered the newly elected and specially selected archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, to grant him the annulment he so desperately needed. That simple action would have consequences that would reach far beyond Henry or Anne’s own life, forever changing the religious and political landscape of the country, leading to the English Reformation. Breaking away from Rome was a rash, dangerous and groundbreaking move, but Henry finally had what he wanted – he was allowed to marry the enchanting Anne. And it was just in time, because

Anne Boleyn

TUDOR COURTSHIPGet set upAs forced marriage is forbidden by the Church, marriages can’t strictly be ‘arranged’, but couples are often

matched up by their parents to ensure a suitor of acceptable social standing. Love matches do occur, but are only really acceptable if the wealth of both is suitable.

Shower her in giftsOnce a suitable lady has been chosen, a Tudor gentleman will begin the first stage of courtship

in which he will visit her frequently and bestow her with an array of valuable gifts to win her over. Ribbons, girdles and gloves can all be used to capture a lady’s heart.

Show your commitmentKnown as betrothal or handfasting, when the couple have agreed to marry they will go

through a period similar to a modern-day engagement. This often involves a public ceremony where pledges are made. After the betrothal the couple are allowed to begin sexual relations.

Get marriedThe marriage ceremony itself is a very public and high-profile affair in a church with the more guests

the better. Wedding dresses will usually be the bride’s best dress and, for those who can afford it, the ceremony will be followed by a great feast with food, music and dancing.

17 love letters Henry wrote to

Anne have survived and are stored in the Vatican

Library

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she was already pregnant, and any child born out of wedlock could not be king – male or not.

Anne was paraded through the streets of London in a grand ceremony; she sat upon swathes of fine cloth resting on two regal horses. She was crowned with St Edward’s crown, a crown only worn previously by monarchs, perhaps indicating the male heir she was presumed to carry in her belly. Anne’s family immediately felt the boons of their new powerful connection. Her father became Earl of Wiltshire, her cousin Earl of Ormond and even Mary, Henry’s previous mistress, received an annual pension of £100. Spirits in the royal court were high, but beyond the palace gates the public were unconvinced. In their eyes not only had Anne ousted a beloved queen, but she was also responsible for the ripples created after the break with Rome; the people needed something stable to place their hopes in – they needed a male heir.

They would have to wait. On 7 September 1533 Anne gave birth, but it was not to the son she, Henry and everyone else had expected. It was a daughter. She was christened ‘Elizabeth’ in honour of Henry’s mother, but this did little to comfort his disappointment. The documents were changed, the tournament that celebrated the birth of an heir cancelled and the people’s discontent grew. Doubts also began to grow in Henry’s mind; not only had Anne failed to produce the male heir she had promised him prior to their union, but also the qualities that had made the young Boleyn girl so enchanting and desirable as a mistress were proving unsuitable for the wife of a king.

After being married to Catherine of Aragon for so long, Henry was used to having an obedient, reliable and submissive wife. Anne was anything but this. She would openly speak her mind and express opinions contrary to Henry’s. Catherine had silently watched as Henry indulged himself with

various mistresses beneath her nose, but Anne reacted with extreme jealousy toward any woman that got close to him, as she herself was aware how easily her husband’s gaze could travel. He had sacrificed his faith and rocked the very foundations of the country for her, but now Henry was not so sure about Anne, and neither was anyone else.

The pressure on Anne at this point was immeasurable. She was already aware of Henry’s affections toward Jane Seymour, one of her own ladies in waiting, and when Anne witnessed her wearing a locket with a portrait of Henry inside – a gift from the king – she tore it from Jane’s neck with such force that her fingers bled. She was

desperate to cling to power, not only for herself, but for the good of her

family and her daughter, and her only chance of keeping a grasp

on it relied on something completely out of her control. Sadly for Anne, the pressure upon her was not about to ease up, and she suffered a miscarriage in 1534, just

one year into her tenure as queen. Fate itself seemed

positioned against her when again in 1536 she miscarried

another baby, this time a boy. For Henry, and many others, there was

more than fate at work here, and he accused Anne of seducing him with spells. The fact she was unable to bear a healthy son was, apparently, further proof that Anne was cursed. Considering the public’s already poor opinion of her, it would not take much for them to believe that Anne was a harbinger of ill omens and quite possibly a witch sent to lead their king and country astray. Not only was she disobedient, fiery and opinionated, but she was also unable to produce a future king. Everyone was agreed – Anne needed to go.

As Anne recovered from her miscarriage, Thomas Cromwell, Henry’s chief minister, set about plotting her downfall. Cromwell had his own reasons to fear the influence of Anne; the two had argued where the money from the dissolution

Anne Boleyn

ENGLISH REFORMATION

IN NUMBERS

8001 in 50 was in religious orders

religious houses taken over by Henry

200 The years the monarchy had been trying to suppress religious power

10,000monks, nuns, friars and canons lost their homes

£84,324,100The amount the crown profited per year as a result of

the Reformation

30,000The number of people who took part in the Pilgrimage of

Grace against the Reformation

Anne was a champion of the

English translation of the Bible

Anne is sent abroad to receive an education in Europe and joins the

schoolroom of Margaret of Austria. Here she learns all the skills expected of a

Tudor noblewoman, such as horseback riding, dancing,

singing and writing.

1513

Anne becomes maid of honour to Queen Claude

of France. Here she develops many of the skills that will later

impress the king, such as art, fashion, etiquette and most

importantly, the game of courtly love.

1515

Anne’s father summons

her back to England to marry James Butler to settle a dispute over land and titles. The marriage arrangements

come to a sudden halt, possibly because Thomas Boleyn has a

grander suitor in mind for his youngest daughter.

1522

Anne makes her debut at the Chateau

Vert pageant. She attracts the attention of Sir Thomas Wyatt and Sir Henry Percy. She later

secretly betroths Percy, but it is cut off by his father and Anne

enters into the service of Catherine of Aragon.

1522

THE HIGHS AND LOWS OF ANNE BOLEYNAnne is born to Thomas Boleyn and

Lady Elizabeth Howard, the second daughter born to the

couple after Mary. The Boleyns are a very respected family of

the English aristocracy. The date of Anne’s birth is also

argued to be 1507.

1501

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Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII loses interest in Anne’s sister, Mary, and begins to court Anne. He

sends her a series of love letters, but Anne refuses to be his

mistress. Within a year Henry asks Anne to marry him and

she accepts.

1526

Anne is crowned queen consort, after

years of fighting for an annulment of the marriage of Henry and Catherine. Anne is

already pregnant with Elizabeth and in September of that year she is born, much to Henry’s

disappointment.

1533

The relationship between Anne and Henry becomes strained as Anne

suffers a miscarriage. By the time she falls pregnant again in 1535, Henry is already courting

Jane Seymour. Anne also miscarries this child, who

appears to be male.

1534

Various men are arrested on charges

of adultery with Anne and treason against the king in a

plot masterminded by Thomas Cromwell. Anne is taken to the

Tower of London, tried and found guilty of adultery, incest and high treason.

1536

treason against the king in a plot masterminded by Thomas Cromwell. Anne is taken to the

Tower of London, tried and

Anne is executed on

a scaffold by a French swordsman brought in

especially for the beheading. Before her death she praises

Henry, perhaps to save Elizabeth and her family from any further

implications, but refuses to admit her guilt.

1536

time she falls pregnant again in begins to court Anne. He

sends her a series of love letters, but Anne refuses to be his

mistress. Within a year Henry asks Anne to marry him and

15331535, Henry is already courting

George BoleynCRIME: INCEST, TREASON

DATE OF EXECUTION: 17 MAY 1536Anne’s brother George was charged with incest with the queen and plotting to kill

the king. It is likely this was a plot devised by Thomas Cromwell to rid Henry of Anne. Despite

no evidence against him he was found guilty and beheaded with the four other men.

Henry Norris CRIME: TREASON, ADULTERY

DATE OF EXECUTION: 17 MAY 1536Norris served as groom of the stool to Henry

VIII and was close to both the king and queen. The dates he was charged with adultery

would be nigh-on impossible, as Anne was not in Westminster at the time. Norris was found guilty and

said very little on the scaffold as he met his death.

Francis WestonCRIME: TREASON, ADULTERY

DATE OF EXECUTION: 17 MAY 1536 Weston served as a gentleman of the Privy

Chamber to Henry VIII, and became a friend of the king. Aged 25, Weston was arrested

for adultery with Anne and plotting to kill the king, despite no evidence supporting this. Weston

protested his innocence to the end but was executed.

John FisherCRIME: TREASON

DATE OF EXECUTION: 22 JUNE 1535Born in Yorkshire, John Fisher was a Roman-

Catholic bishop who supported Catherine of Aragon when Henry VIII attempted to

divorce her. Fisher refused to accept the king as head of the church and was beheaded as a

result. Today Fisher is considered a saint.

Thomas Darcy CRIME: HIGH TREASON

DATE OF EXECUTION: 30 JUNE 1537 An English nobleman, Darcy was opposed

to Henry’s dissolution of the monasteries and helped lead the popular uprising the

Pilgrimage of Grace. “The most serious of all Tudor rebellions” saw 30,000 people in

Yorkshire rise up against the religious reforms.

HEADLESS HALL OF FAME

Catherine’s inability to produce more children and Henry’s desire to annul the marriage became known as ‘The Great Matter’

The actual wedding date of Henry and Anne is in some dispute due to the hasty and secretive nature of it

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Anne Boleyn

WIFE HEAD-TO-HEADLESS

Catherine of Aragon DATES OF MARRIAGE: 1509-1533 WHAT HAPPENED TO HER? DIVORCEDCatherine was first married to Arthur, Henry’s older brother, but was betrothed to Henry after his death. Catherine had a string of failed pregnancies and finally gave birth to a healthy daughter in 1516 – Mary. Although Henry seemed to adore Catherine, the marriage was annulled on the basis that she had been his brother’s wife.

Anne BoleynDATES OF MARRIAGE: 1533-1536 WHAT HAPPENED TO HER? BEHEADEDClever, pretty and witty, Anne soon attracted Henry’s attention as the handmaiden of Catherine of Aragon. She refused to become a mistress and demanded he wed her. This led Henry to seek a divorce and start the English Reformation. Although Anne produced the would-be heir, Elizabeth, her failure to produce a son had Henry plot her downfall.

Jane SeymourDATES OF MARRIAGE: 1536-1537WHAT HAPPENED TO HER? DIED AFTER GIVING BIRTHIt is highly likely that Jane Seymour was the mistress who disposed of Anne, and Seymour married Henry shortly after Anne’s execution. Although she was the lowest in birth of Henry’s wives, her giving Henry his much-desired male heir, Edward, secured his everlasting love. She died from post-natal complications and Henry was later buried next to her.

Anne of ClevesDATES OF MARRIAGE: 6 JANUARY 1540 - 9 JULY 1540 WHAT HAPPENED TO HER? DIVORCEDA German princess, Anne was selected by Henry from nothing more than a portrait. Henry asked the artist to paint Anne realistically, and not to flatter her. However, when Henry met her he was greatly disappointed and was not enthusiastic about the marriage. The marriage provided a vital alliance with the Germans, but was later annulled.

Catherine HowardDATES OF MARRIAGE: 1540-1541WHAT HAPPENED TO HER? BEHEADEDReferred to by Henry as his “rose without a thorn”, the young and pretty woman quickly caught the king’s eye and the two were soon married. However, in early-1941 Howard allegedly embarked upon an affair with Henry’s male courtier, Thomas Culpepper. Howard was charged with treason and adultery, found guilty and executed.

Catherine Parr DATES OF MARRIAGE: 1543-1547 WHAT HAPPENED TO HER? SURVIVEDHaving had four husbands of which Henry was the third, Catherine Parr was the most married queen in English history. Her friendship with Henry’s daughter Mary caused her to catch the king’s attention. As queen, Catherine worked to restore Henry’s court as a family home, and helped strengthen the Tudor line, thereby ensuring Elizabeth’s eventual succession.

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Anne made her debut playing Perseverance at the Chateau Vert pageant where she danced with Henry’s sister Mary

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of the monasteries should go, and he had seen where Anne had sent her other enemies, such as Thomas More – to the chopping block. Under Henry’s instructions, Cromwell began to investigate a variety of adulterous accusations against Anne and arrested Mark Smeaton, a court musician. Mark confessed to the charges, very likely under torture, and gave the names of a selection of other men under the same charges, including Anne’s own brother – George.

Anne was far from blind to what was going on; she was very aware of what these investigations meant for herself. In April 1536, just before Smeaton was arrested, Anne came to Henry carrying the young Elizabeth in her arms and appealed to him directly. However, it seemed that her power over him had finally been extinguished. On 1 May Henry left the Mayday jousts without saying goodbye to Anne, and the following day she was arrested – it would be the final time she would ever see her husband.

In a cruel twist of irony, Anne’s prison cell was the very same place in the Tower of London that she had resided on her coronation night. For Anne, a woman for whom control had always been of vital importance, the hopelessness of her situation had a profound effect. Within a day of imprisonment her state of mind differed from optimism and giddiness, to bouts of hysteria and extreme depression. The queen would sob uncontrollably one moment, then burst into shocking laughter the next. Her enemies were very cunning with the methods in which they condemned Anne; four of the men were tried and found guilty of adultery and treason before her own trial took place, making it nigh-on impossible for her to prove her innocence.

Anne was forced to stand before a council of peers including her once-love Henry Percy and her own uncle in the very same room she had enjoyed her coronation feast. There was very little evidence

against Anne or any of the men accused, but the king had made his will known. When the verdict was announced, Anne collapsed and had to be carried out of the courtroom. Guilty. She had been condemned to death.

On 17 May, the five condemned men were executed, including Anne’s beloved younger brother, and on 19 May Anne herself was led to the scaffold. Her marriage to the king had already been deemed invalid, and he was not present to witness the final moments of the woman who had captivated him for so many years. Anne’s body was buried in an unmarked grave in the Chapel

of St Peter, which adjoined the Tower Green. For the surviving Boleyns, the fall was

so great they could not hope to recover from it. Anne’s mother,

Elizabeth, died a year later and she was soon followed by her

husband. Mary died in 1542, leaving behind only a young daughter and the son that may have been Henry’s. Less than eight years after

Anne’s coronation every immediate member of the

Boleyn family was dead. Their rise had been magnificent, their

fall akin to a Greek tragedy. The future for Henry was almost as

stormy. 11 years and four wives later, Henry’s greed and debauched lifestyle finally got the better of him and he died aged 55. The handsome, athletic and charismatic young man that he had wished to portray himself as had faded long ago, and the portrait of a lustful, violent and egotistical king remained. Although he had finally produced the son he was so obsessed with obtaining, the young Edward VI died aged just 15.

But unbeknownst to him, he had already produced the strong, long-lasting heir he desired. Elizabeth, the daughter Anne had borne who he had been so disappointed with, went on to rule England for 45 years. She became one of the most famed and celebrated rulers in the nation’s history, and Henry and Anne’s most enduring legacy.

Anne Boleyn

The legend that Anne had a sixth

finger on her hand was likely a vicious

rumour

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SPOUSE WARS

Fat′h Ali Shah Qajar PERSIAN, 1772-1834

NUMBER OF MARRIAGES: 158

Mswati III SWAZI, 1968 - PRESENT DAY

NUMBER OF MARRIAGES: 15

Sobhuza II SWAZI, 1899-1982

NUMBER OF MARRIAGES: 70

Amenhotep III EGYPTIAN, ??? - 1353 BCE

NUMBER OF MARRIAGES: 317

Abdul Hamid II OTTOMAN, 1876-1909

NUMBER OF MARRIAGES: 13

Henry VIII’s six wives is a lot for British leaders, but it pales

in a worldwide context

Anne Boleyn being taken to the Tower

of London

Although she was banished from court, Catherine of Aragon referred to herself as ‘the queen’ until her death

© Lo

ok &

Lear

n; A

lamy

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Amelia was the first

woman to receive the Distinguished

Flying Cross, after her solo Atlantic flight

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When Amelia Mary Earhart was born on Saturday 24 July 1897, her mother Amy noted down an old saying: “But Saturday’s bairn must work for a living.” For a woman who had never worked a

day in her life, whose mother and grandmother had equally privileged histories, it must have seemed a strange prophesy to make for her daughter. For Amelia too was born into wealth. Her father Edwin was a lawyer, her grandfather had been a judge, and so she seemed destined for a life like any other woman of her pedigree – she would marry into a family of similar standing, bear many children, and die with hands as untarnished as the day she was born. But her family’s fortune was not to last, and war was brewing. Amelia’s life was to be anything but ordinary.

From a young age, Amelia took an interest in pursuits outside of what was considered ‘proper’ for girls of her class. She spent her days climbing trees, shooting rats and collecting animal bones. When her mother gave her a pair of bloomers, it wasn’t

just the older generations that disapproved; a girl at school branded her ‘fast’ because three inches of her calf was exposed when she crossed her legs.

It was during one of her more ‘boyish’ moments that Amelia had her first experience of flying, inspired by a trip to the St Louis World’s Fair, where her mother had forbidden her from riding on the rollercoaster. Once back at home, Amelia set about building a rollercoaster of her very own using a wooden packing box and roller-skate wheels. She propped some wooden planks up against the tool shed roof to make a ramp, and clambered up for takeoff. Safely inside the box, she pushed herself off the edge only to tumble out of control down the steep incline, hit the ground, and somersault head over heels. As she emerged from the broken box, her lip bruised and dress torn, she exclaimed to her sister: “Oh, Pidge, it’s just like flying.”

However, her carefree childhood was to be cut short when it was discovered that her father was an alcoholic, and in 1914 he was forced to retire. At about the same time, Amelia’s maternal

Written by Alicea Francis

Often remembered for her mysterious death, the life of this aviation heroine was

just as extraordinary

Amelia Earhart

HEROES VILLAINSHEROES

VILLAINS&

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Heroes & VillainsAMELIA EARHART

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Heroes & VillainsAMELIA EARHART

every weekend at least one of them hosted an ‘air meet’. Amelia attended every one she could, and eventually got word of Neta Snook, a 24-year-old female pilot. Arriving at the airfield in a suit and neatly coiffed hair, she asked: “I want to fly. Will you teach me?” Willingly, Neta agreed.

For Amelia, it seemed as though all the stars had finally aligned, but there was one problem: she had no money to pay for lessons. The pair came to a settlement whereby Amelia would pay her as soon as she could afford it. Shortly after, Amelia took up a job as a clerk. On the day of her first class on 3 January 1921, she turned up in jodhpurs, boots and a leather jacket that she had slept in to give it a worn look, and with a book on aerodynamics under her arm. Her transformation was complete when she reluctantly cut her hair short, after a little girl told her she didn’t look much like an aviatrix with her long, neatly styled hair. Six months later, she purchased a second-hand bright yellow Kinner Airster biplane nicknamed ‘the Canary’. On 22 October, she flew the Canary to an altitude of 14,000 feet, setting a world record for female pilots,

and by the following May, Amelia had become the 16th woman to be issued a pilot’s license.

By this time, her family’s fortune was almost depleted, following an investment in a failed gypsum mine. Amelia was forced to sell her Canary and look for new employment. She worked for a while as a photographer, then a truck driver – for which she was ‘ostracised by the more right-thinking girls’. Eventually, she saved up enough for another plane – this time a Kinner – and once again could take her flying seriously. She was elected vice-president of the American Aeronautical Society’s Boston chapter, helped finance the operation of Denniston Airport in Quincy, Massachusetts, and in 1927 flew the first official flight out of it. Now a local celebrity, in April 1928 Amelia received a call from Captain Hilton H Railey, who asked her: “Would you like to fly the Atlantic?”

The first Atlantic crossing was achieved in the spring of 1927 by American pilot Charles Lindbergh. Overnight he had become the most famous man on earth, and soon every daring aviator was vying for their piece of the fame. In the year following

The aviatrix campaigned for better public awareness of aviation and female pilots

Amelia was called ‘Lady Lindy’ partly because her slim build and facial features resembled Charles Lindbergh

Amelia once said: “Flying may not be all plain sailing, but the fun of it is worth the price”

grandmother died, but left her daughter’s inheritance in trust for fear that Edwin’s drinking would drain the funds. With her home life in tatters, Amelia struggled to maintain her grades. When the USA joined World War I in 1917, she was traumatised by the sight of the returning soldiers, many with lost limbs, blind or on crutches. She couldn’t bear to return to school knowing so many were in need, so she signed up to become a nurse.

The hours were long and the work was gruelling; Amelia felt a million miles away from the world she had been raised in. On her rare days off, she would head to the local stables, where she had succeeded in taming an unruly horse named Dynamite. One day while out riding, she came across three air force officers, who expressed their amazement at how well she controlled the horse – he had infamously once bucked off a colonel. They invited her to come and watch how they controlled their planes, and she was astounded by the beauty of the metal birds. She asked if she could go up with them, but was refused; not even a general’s wife can do that, they said. Frustrated by the injustice, she committed herself to finding a way to fly.

With the war over, Amelia returned to live with her parents, who had relocated to California. The whole state had been swept up by an aviation craze, made popular by the big names of Hollywood. There were 20 airfields in Los Angeles alone, and

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“She was not satis¡ ed. She wanted to achieve the ultimate in aviation feats”

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(1,600 feet) wide. The USCGC Itasca was on station at Howland, assigned to guide them to the island. But those on board the ship soon realised their radio transmissions were not being received; Earhart sent out several calls requesting bearings, and at 7.42am radioed: “We must be on you, but cannot see you – but gas is running low. Have been unable to reach you by radio. We are flying at 1,000 feet.” Her last known transmission was at 8.43am.

Within an hour of receiving the last message, the Itasca began a search, and was soon joined by the US Navy. But their efforts were in vain; on 19 July, the search was officially called off. It had cost the navy and coast guard a total of $4 million – the costliest search mission to that date – but the technology and techniques were primitive, and neither the crew nor the plane were ever found. Earhart was declared dead on 5 January 1939.

Heroes & VillainsAMELIA EARHART

Lindbergh’s flight, 55 pilots in 18 planes attempted to fly the Atlantic. Of the 55, eight were successful and 14 died. Three out of the five women who had participated were among the dead. The title of ‘first woman to fly the Atlantic’ remained up for grabs, but getting it would be exceptionally risky. Eventually, it was decided that Amelia was to simply accompany another male pilot, Wilmer Stultz, on the voyage, with the added duty of keeping the flight log. Upon landing at Burry Port, Wales, on 17 June, she said: “Stultz did all the flying – had to. I was just baggage, like a sack of potatoes.” Despite this, Amelia returned to the US a national hero.

The press nicknamed her ‘Lady Lindy’ and her photograph was used to endorse women’s clothing. She accepted a position as associate editor of Cosmopolitan magazine and used it to promote public acceptance of aviation, particularly female pilots. Her aviation endeavours continued; in August 1928 she became the first woman to fly solo across the North American continent and back, and in 1931 she set a world altitude record flying at 18,451 feet. On 20 May 1932,

she finally succeeded in flying solo nonstop across the Atlantic, becoming the first woman to do so.

In the years that followed, Amelia set many more speed and distance records, but still she was not satisfied. She wanted to achieve the ultimate in aviation feats: a round-the-world flight. In 1936, she

began planning for what would not be the first, but the longest round-the-world trip

at 29,000 miles (47,000 kilometres). A Lockheed Electra 10E was built

to her specifications and her navigators chosen: Captain Harry Manning and Fred Noonan. On 27 March 1937, Amelia and her crew flew the first leg from California

to Hawaii. However, during takeoff from Hawaii, the plane

was damaged and the flight cancelled. The Electra was shipped

back to the mainland for repair. Two months later, Amelia and Fred

attempted the journey again, this time flying west to east. On 29 June, after stopping in South America, Africa, India and Southeast Asia, they arrived in Lae, New Guinea, having completed 22,000 miles of the journey. On 2 July, they set off for the island of Howland, a sliver of land only 2,000 metres (6,500 feet) long and 500 metres

Amelia meeting President Herbert Hoover at the White House

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A lighthouse

called Earhart Light was erected on

Howland Island in memory of Amelia

Earhart’s record-breaking achievements and campaigns to encourage women’s education and employment make her

not only a hero of aviation, but also of gender equality

AlliesGeorge P PutnamA successful publisher and publicist, George was one of the organisers of Amelia’s first Atlantic flight with Wilmer Stultz and later promoted her campaigns. He proposed to Amelia six times until she eventually agreed, and they were married in 1931. She did not take his name.

Neta SnookNeta was the first female pilot to run her own aviation business, and was the person who Amelia approached when she first decided she wanted flying lessons. Neta went on to become the first woman to enter a ‘men’s’ air race. She later wrote an autobiography called I Taught Amelia To Fly.

Eleanor RooseveltAs her fame grew, Amelia made friends with many people in high offices, including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, and the two shared a number of interests. After taking her flying, Eleanor applied for a student permit, but never pursued her plans to learn to fly.

Amelia cut her hair short after a little girl told her she

didn’t look like an aviator with long hair

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